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Yōmei-gaku. Jap. term for the heterodox neo-Confucian teachings of Wang Yang-ming (Jap., Ō Yōmei, 1472–1529), also known as the School of Mind or Intuition. Nakae Tōju (1608–48) is considered the school's founder in Japan, which also included the samurai reformer Kumazawa Banzan (1619–91). The school's politically activist teachings attracted numerous followers during the Tokugawa (1600–1868) period's final decades, including figures like Ōshio Chūsai (Heihachirō), Sakuma Shōzan, and Yoshida Shōin, whose students became leaders of the Meiji Restoration of 1868.