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Tiruvaḷḷuvar (c.5th cent. CE). Author of a major work in Tamil, Kuraḷ or Tirukkuṛaḷ. The work reviews three of the four ends of human life (puruṣhartha): aram (dharma), porul (artha), and inpam (kāma), but not the final end of mokṣa. It is uncertain to which religion the author actually belonged: he has been claimed by Jains and Christians as well as Hindus. Its ethical stress and openness of manner have led to its being translated many times. It is regarded by Hindus in S. India as a sacred text, and for that reason is often called Tamilveda.