Skip to main content

Tan-hsia Tʾien-jan

Tan-hsia Tʾien-jan (Jap., Tanka Tennen; 739–834). Chinese Chʾan/Zen master, dharma-successor (has-su) of Shih-tʾou Hsi-chien. Nothing is known of his early life, beyond the fact that he studied Confucianism and planned to be a state official, but on his way was diverted by a Chʾan monk who advised him that it would be wiser to seek to be a buddha, and sent him to Ma-tsu. After his training with Shih-tʾou, he returned to Ma-tsu, and when asked what he had learnt, he sat on the shoulders of an image of Mañjuśrī. The monks were outraged, but Ma-tsu said, ‘My son, you are entirely natural’—hence his monastic name Tʾien-jan, ‘the natural’. He remained well-known for his unconventional behaviour.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Tan-hsia Tʾien-jan." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 11 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Tan-hsia Tʾien-jan." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 11, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tan-hsia-tien-jan

"Tan-hsia Tʾien-jan." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved December 11, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/tan-hsia-tien-jan

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.