Tajwīd (Arab.). Qurʾān recitation. There are three major styles of tajwīd: (i) tartīl, slow and deliberate, in order to reflect on the meaning (73. 4); (ii) ḥadr, rapidly, in order to cover as much text as possible (e.g. in fulfilment of a vow, for merit, etc.); (iii) tadwīr, intermediate. The major treatise is Ibn al-Jazarī's Al-Nashr fiʾl-Qirāʾāt al-ʿAshr (15th cent.; 2 vols., 1926).
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