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Suhrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā, Shaykh al-Ishrāq

Suhrawardī, Shihāb al-Dīn Yaḥyā, Shaykh al-Ishrāq (1154–91 (AH 549–87)). Muslim eclectic who established the ishraqi (Illuminationist) school of philosophy. He was born in Iran, and after years of wandering, settled in Aleppo. However, his unorthodox views led to his imprisonment and death, probably by execution—for which reason his followers called him al-Shaykh al-Maqtul (murdered) to distinguish him from two other famous Sūfīs of the same family. He produced many works expounding the philosophy of Illumination, of which the best-known is Kitab Hikmat al-Ishraq (The Book of the Illuminationist Wisdom). In this he shows how humans can travel from darkness to light, not only metaphorically. He believed that the centre of light is in the point where the Qurʾān was revealed, and that those living far away are in the position of those who are yearning to return. His influence continued particularly among Shiʿites.

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