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Śaiva-Āgama. Authoritative texts of Śaivism, the earliest being written between 400–800 CE. The texts deal with Śaiva liturgy which involves nyāsa, mudrā, mantra, the construction of yantras or maṇḍalas and visualization (dhyāna), the construction of shrines and temples, and festivals. Interest in philosophy is somewhat limited and is mainly concerned with speculation on the power of speech and the tattvas. Initiation (dīkṣā) is important in the texts. The Āgamas theoretically follow a fourfold structure of jñāna, yoga, kriya, and carya padas, though this pattern is seldom strictly adhered to.

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