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Konkōkyō (Golden Light). A movement founded in Japan in 1859 by Kawate Bunjiro (1814–83). Although registered by the Japanese government as a Shinto sect, it represents in many respects a departure from Shintoism. Not only does it place the emphasis on individual as opposed to group salvation, but also, unlike Shintoism, it believes in the existence of a mediator, in the person of its leader, between God (known as Tenchi Kane no Kami, the parent Spirit of the Universe) and humans. Moreover, it rejects such Shinto practices as exorcism and divination, and attaches great importance to social welfare activities.

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