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Jonang-pa. A school of Tibetan Buddhism prominent from the 13th cent. but closed down by the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, allegedly for heresy, in the 17th-cent. reformation. The founding of the Jonang is attributed to the 12th-cent. Yumo Mikyo Dorje, and the school took its name from the Jomonang monastery founded by Thukje Tsondru, whose student Sherab Gyaltsen (1292–1361) was the first to systematize its teachings. Their offending beliefs go back to Yumo Mikyo Dorje, who evolved the zhen dong heresy during meditation on the Kālacakra and presented it supported by sūtras ‘indicating an essence’ (snying.po; i.e. the Tathāgatagarbha Sūtra), but considered by other schools as ‘requiring interpretation’ (neyārtha) and not to be taken at face value (nītārtha). It is ironic that, given the charge of heresy as a reason for their repression, the offending zhen dong doctrine was reactivated to underpin the 19th-cent. Rimé movement, and has since become prevalent in all schools except the Geluk.