Skip to main content


Ḥanbalites. One of the four main law schools of sharīʿa which developed from the teachings of the theologian Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal (d. 855 (AH 241)). Ḥanbal established no system of his own, but his pronouncements over legal problems were systematized by such followers as Abu Bakr al-Khallal (d. 924 (AH 311)). This school was an orthodox reaction against the excesses of esoteric Sufism (though certainly not against all Sūfīs) and speculative theology. The Ḥanbalite school is characterized by its literal and dogmatic nature. It recognizes no other source than the Qurʾān and the Sunna in Islamic law. At the present time, because of their proselytizing efforts in Africa and the East, and because of secularizing threats to Islam, the Ḥanbalites are becoming increasingly influential.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"ḥanbalites." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . 24 Apr. 2019 <>.

"ḥanbalites." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . (April 24, 2019).

"ḥanbalites." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Retrieved April 24, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.