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Darśana (Skt., ‘viewing’).
1. In post-Vedic times, the term refers to the ‘schools’ or ‘viewpoints’ of Indian philosophy, both orthodox and heterodox. The orthodox (āstika) Hindu darśanas include six different systems which share certain presuppositions, in particular the authority of the Veda as an infallible source of knowledge. These six darśanas are traditionally listed in pairs in the following order: Nyāya, founded by Gautama, and Vaiśeṣika by Kaṇāda; Sāṃkhya, founded by Kapila and Yoga by Patañjali; Pūrva-mīmāṃsā founded by Jaimini and Vedānta by Bādarāyaṇa.

In dynamic interaction with the orthodox systems are the three main heterodox (nāstika) darśanas, Cārvāka, Jaina, and Buddhist, which modify and adapt traditional views and challenge the authority of the Veda as well as the brahman priesthood.

2. Paying respect or homage to (‘viewing’ with respect) a holy image, person or place, and receiving merit or blessing in return. Among Sikhs, the ‘viewing’ is of the Ādi Granth, and hearing its contents.

3. In Buddhism (Pāli, dassana), insight based on reason to defeat false views (dṛṣti; Pāli, diṭṭhi) and mental defects (kleśa; Pāli, kilesa).