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Aṭṭha-loka-dhamma (Pāli, ‘eight worldly concerns’). Buddhism teaches that there are eight matters which are common human preoccupations. They are ‘gain and loss, fame and obscurity, praise and blame, happiness (sukha) and suffering (dukkha)’. Looking at the world in these terms, however, is regarded as inherently unsatisfying, and perfect happiness (paramasukha) is not possible until they are abandoned.