al-ṭūsī, Muḥammad ibn ḥasan

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al-Ṭūsī, Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan (995–1067 (AH 385–460)). Leading Shiʿite scholar. Born in Ṭūs (hence the name), he played an important part in stabilizing the religion in practice after the occultation (see hidden Imām) of the twelfth Imām. He collected Shiʿite traditions in al-Istibṣār (The Examination) and in Taḥdhīb al-Aḥkām (The Correcting of Judgements), which form part of the ‘Four Books’ of authoritative traditions. Even more influential was his Kitāb al-Nihāya (The Book of Method), which lays out the basis of Shiʿite legal procedure, and which became the foundation of a legal school which endured for centuries after his death. After riots, during which his library was burnt, he moved to al-Najaf where he died.