al-Shāfiʿi, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad

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al-Shāfiʿi, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad (d. 820 (AH 204)). Founder of the Shāfiʿite school of Muslim law (sharīʿa). He was taught by Mālik b. Anas (amongst many others), but differed from him in paying particular attention to the methods of applying Qurʾān and sunna, and for that reason is regarded as the founder of uṣūl al-fiqh (the principles of fiqh). Thus he attempted to establish rules governing the exercise of qiyās (analogy); but having done so, he was prepared to use it to establish a middle way between conservative traditionalism and innovation.