Skip to main content

Villafranca di Verona

Villafranca di Verona (vēl´läfräng´kä dē vārô´nä), town (1991 pop. 27,036), Venetia, NE Italy. In 1859, Napoleon III and Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria met there after the Austrian defeats at Magenta and Solferino and signed a preliminary peace treaty, which was formalized the same year by the Treaty of Zürich. Sardinia, Napoleon's ally, was not represented. Austria ceded Lombardy, which was added to Sardinia; Venetia remained Austrian. The rulers of Tuscany were to be reinstated, and the Italian states were to form a confederation under the presidency of the pope. Sardinia ignored the last two clauses; to obtain Napoleon's consent for this course, Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia ceded Nice and Menton to France (1860). The exclusion of Sardinia from the Treaty of Villafranca, an act that nearly deprived Victor Emmanuel of his leading role in the Risorgimento, was deeply resented throughout Italy and greatly harmed Franco-Italian relations.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Villafranca di Verona." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 23 Mar. 2018 <>.

"Villafranca di Verona." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (March 23, 2018).

"Villafranca di Verona." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved March 23, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.