Thiruvananthapuram (tĬr´ōōvənŭn´təpŏŏr´əm), formerly Trivandrum (trĬvăn´drəm), city (1991 pop. 826,255), capital and largest city of Kerala state, SW India, a port on the Arabian Sea. The city is a transportation hub. Industries include software, tourism, biotechnology, sugar refining, and textile and handicraft production, but government provides much of the employment. The city was the capital of the former state of Travancore and of Travancore-Cochin. The Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple (contructed 800s–1700s) is noted for the rich treasure in its vaults. A rocket launching station is located at Thumba, northwest of Thiruvananthapuram.