James Schouler (skōō´lər), 1839–1920, American historian and lawyer, b. West Cambridge (now Arlington), Mass. Admitted to the bar in 1862, he served in the Union army and returned to Boston in 1863 to practice law. From 1871 to 1873 he published the United States Jurist in Washington, D.C. He lectured on law at Boston Univ. (1883–1902) and at the National Univ., Washington, D.C. (1888–1908), and on American history at Johns Hopkins (1891–1908). His History of the United States of America under the Constitution (7 vol., 1880–1913, repr. 1970), covering the period 1783–1877, is primarily a political and constitutional interpretation. Other works, aside from a number of treatises on legal subjects, include Thomas Jefferson (1893), Alexander Hamilton (1901), and Ideals of the Republic (1908). His Historical Briefs (1896) in part covers his own experience as a historian.