Alice Neel, 1900–84, American painter, b. Merion Square, Pa., grad. Philadelphia School of Design for Women (1925). She worked (1933–43) for various Depression-era government arts programs, painting many social realist canvases depicting the sufferings of the poor. In the 1960s, she began to make the portraits of artists, critics, and other art-world figures for which she is particularly known. Painted from life, closely observed, and direct and experessionistic in style, her sometimes gentle, often brutal portraits capture the essence of her sitters. In an era when abstract expressionism was king, Neel continued to paint unfashionable portraits, and her work was relatively unknown to the public. In the 1970s she turned to portraits of family and friends and to a series of nudes, and her work also gained significant public and critical attention. She has since come to be regarded as a pioneer woman artist and a modern master of portraiture.
See biographies by P. Hill (1995) and P. Hoban (2010); studies by P. Allara (1998) and J. Lewison et al. (museum catalog, 2010); A. Neel, her grandson, dir., Alice Neel (documentary film, 2007).
"Neel, Alice." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 14, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/neel-alice
"Neel, Alice." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 14, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/neel-alice
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.