Skip to main content

Martin, Paul Edgar Philippe, Jr.

Paul Edgar Philippe Martin, Jr., 1938–, Canadian politician, prime minister (2003–6) of Canada, b. Windsor, Ont. The scion of a politically active family (his father served in parliament and ran unsuccessfully for Liberal party leader three times), Martin became a lawyer (1966) and president of Canada Steamship Lines (1974), which he later purchased. Elected as a Liberal to parliament in 1988, he made an unsuccessful bid for the party leadership post two years later. In 1993, Martin became finance minister under Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, and by the late 1990s had brought the federal budget out of deficit, making a name for himself as a fiscal conservative. By 2001, Martin was actively maneuvering to succeed Chétien, a situation that led the prime minister to fire the more popular Martin as finance minister in 2002. In Oct., 2002, Chrétien announced he would not seek a fourth term, and Martin began campaigning openly for the leadership post, which he won in Nov., 2003. He succeeded Chrétien as prime minister the following month. Elections in June, 2004, returned Martin and his party to power, albeit as a minority government forced to contend with fallout from financial improprieties that occurred under Chrétien. His government fell in Nov., 2005, forcing him to call an election, which the Liberals lost (Jan., 2006), and Martin resigned as party leader.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Martin, Paul Edgar Philippe, Jr.." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 18 Aug. 2018 <>.

"Martin, Paul Edgar Philippe, Jr.." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (August 18, 2018).

"Martin, Paul Edgar Philippe, Jr.." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 18, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.