Khudjand, Khujand, or Khudzhand (khōōd´jänd), city (1991 pop. 164,500), capital of Leninobod region, in Tajikistan, on the Syr Darya River at its exit from the Fergana Valley. It is a major center for silk production; other industries produce clothing, footwear, and food products. Khudjand, located on an ancient caravan route from China to the Mediterranean, was a famous town marking the farthest expansion of Alexander the Great. There he founded a new fortress called Alexandria Eskhat (the Outermost Alexandria). It was plundered (711) by Arabs forces and later (1220) was razed by Jenghiz Khan. As part of the Kokand khanate (early 19th cent.), it was annexed (1866) by Russia. The city and surrounding area belonged to Uzbekistan from 1924 to 1929. From 1936 to 1992 it was known as Leninabad. It is one of the oldest centers of Tajik decorative and applied arts.