Skip to main content

João Pessoa

João Pessoa (zhwouN pəsô´ə), city (1991 pop. 497,600), capital of Paraíba state, NE Brazil, at the confluence of the Sanhauá and Paraíba do Norte rivers. Cotton, sugar, and minerals are exported through its port, Cabedelo. Industries in the city produce chemicals, plastics, metals, and electrical goods. The city was established in the late 16th cent. and named (1585) Filipea, in honor of Philip II of Spain and Portugal. During the brief Dutch occupation (17th cent.) it was called Frederickstadt, and, after its reconquest by the Portuguese, Paraíba. Its present name was acquired in 1930, in honor of the state governor who was assassinated in Recife during the Vargas revolution. João Pessoa is the site of a state university. The city's Franciscan convent and church are excellent examples of colonial architecture. Nearby are several resort areas.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"João Pessoa." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 19 Jun. 2018 <>.

"João Pessoa." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (June 19, 2018).

"João Pessoa." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 19, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.