International Campaign to Ban Landmines
International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), global network of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working toward the eradication of antipersonnel landmines. Established in 1992 by the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation, Handicap International, Human Rights Watch, Medico International, Mines Advisory Group, and Physicians for Human Rights, the ICBL advocates international mine clearance and aid for mine victims. Due largely to ICBL actions, a 1996 conference was held in Ottawa, which led to the 1997 treaty banning the use, productions, stockpiling, and transfer of antipersonnel mines. The treaty has resulted in a significant decrease in antipersonnel landmine casualties. By 2007 the treaty had been signed by 155 countries; notable among the nonsignatories are the United States, Russia, and China. In 1997 the ICBL and its founding coordinator, Jody Williams, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The ICBL, which is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and now has a membership of more than 1,400 NGOs, continues its advocacy work and monitors landmines worldwide.