Skip to main content

Hu Jintao

Hu Jintao (hōō´ jĬn´tou´), 1942–, Chinese political leader, b. Jixi, Anhui prov. A hydroelectric engineering graduate (1965) of Qinghua Univ., he joined the Chinese Communist party in 1964 and worked for the ministry of water conservancy until 1974, when he transferred to the Gansu Provincial Construction Committee. Also rising in the party, he attained leadership positions in the Communist Youth League in the early 1980s, became a member of the party's central committee in 1982 (initially as an alternate), and was party leader in Guizhou (1985–88) and Tibet (1988–92), where he imposed martial law in order to suppress Tibetan nationalists. In 1992, sponsored by Deng Xiaoping, he was elected to the standing committee of the party's politburo, serving as president of the party school from 1993. Hu became vice president of China in 1998 and succeeded Jiang Zemin as general secretary of the Communist party in 2002 and as president of China the following year. He also became (2004) chairman of the important party and national central military commissions. As China's leader, Hu emphasized achieving sustainable economic growth that benefited rural as well as urban areas; economic reform proceeded slowly during his tenure, and state-owned enterprises strengthened their economic roles somewhat. He stepped down as party leader in 2012 and as president in 2013, and was succeeded by Xi Jinping.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Hu Jintao." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 23 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Hu Jintao." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 23, 2019).

"Hu Jintao." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 23, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.