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Gifu (gē´fōō), city (1990 pop. 410,324), capital of Gifu prefecture, central Honshu, Japan. A manufacturing and railway center, it has paper and textile industries and is noted for its trout fishing. It is the seat of Gifu Univ. (1949) and of the Nawa Entomology Institute (founded 1896). Strategically located between Kyoto and Tokyo, Gifu served as the headquarters (16th cent.) of Nobunaga. The city was reduced to ashes by fires following an earthquake in 1891. Gifu prefecture (1990 pop. 2,066,579), 4,052 sq mi (10,495 sq km), is mountainous and includes part of the Kiso plain. It is known for the manufacture of automobiles, machinery, textiles, paper, and pottery, and for large zinc deposits in the region. Population is concentrated in Gifu (the capital), Ogaki, and Seki.