Cleveland, Barbara Villiers, duchess of
Barbara Villiers Cleveland, duchess of (vĬl´ərz, vĬl´yərz), 1641–1709, mistress of King Charles II of England. She became Charles's mistress at Breda in 1660 and returned with him to England at the Restoration. The king made her husband, Roger Palmer, earl of Castlemaine. As Lady Castlemaine, Barbara Villiers was the archenemy of the earl of Clarendon, the lord chancellor, and her glee at his downfall (1667) is recorded in Pepys' diary. She was made duchess in 1670, but by 1671 had been supplanted in Charles's affections by Louise de Kéroualle (the future duchess of Portsmouth). She bore the king several children.
See biography by A. Andrews (1970).
"Cleveland, Barbara Villiers, duchess of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 19, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-barbara-villiers-duchess
"Cleveland, Barbara Villiers, duchess of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cleveland-barbara-villiers-duchess
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.