Chávez Frías, Hugo Rafael
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (ōō´gō räfäĕl´ chä´vĕs frē´äs), 1954–2013, Venezuelan political leader, president of Venezuela (1999–2013). Raised in poverty, he was educated at the Military Academy of Venezuela (grad. 1975). For two decades he was a career army officer, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel. In 1992, Chávez took part in an unsuccessful coup attempt against President Carlos Andrés Pérez and was imprisoned until 1994.
A charismatic populist with a gift for oratory, he became the leader of the socialist Fifth Republic Movement (which later became the core of the United Socialist party) and the multiparty leftist Patriotic Pole alliance. Promising a peaceful social revolution, Chávez was elected president in a landslide in 1998. In office he ended the privatization of Venezuela's state holdings, put himself in control of economic matters, and cut oil production to raise oil prices. A constituent assembly mainly made up of his supporters wrote a new constitution that granted the president increased powers and a longer possible term of office and weakened the legislature and judiciary.
Chávez's popularity with the country's poor increased as he took measures against corruption, criticized the traditional oligarchy, and made more funds available for social programs. He also attacked his critics in business and the media and expanded the role of the military. Closer ties were established with Latin American leftist nations, e.g., Bolivia, Cuba, and Nicaragua, which Venezuela supplied with economic assistance financed by oil revenues, as well as with Middle Eastern oil-producing nations.
In 2000, Chávez won office under the new constitution. Although he retained strong support among the lower classes, establishing health clinics for the poor, new hospitals, state-run stores that sold state-subsidized food, better schools, and other benefits, opposition to his rule increased. Many expressed fears that he was exhibiting the distinctively dictatorial signs of the classic Latin American military strongman, the caudillo. Strikes and demonstrations sparked by his attempts to assert control over the state oil company led to a short-lived coup in Apr., 2002, and a prolonged strike by oil workers late in 2002. An attempt by the opposition to recall him through a referendum (Aug., 2004) resulted in a solid vote for Chávez.
Reelected in a landslide in 2006, he moved to nationalize all private energy and power companies in Venezuela and the country's largest telecommunications firms; nationalizations subsequently expanded to include other industries and services. He urged other Latin American countries to folllow suit and also urged them to forge closer ties, achieve greater regional integration, and be less dependent on the United States, which he often criticized. Chávez also increased government restrictions on the media. While his strength with poor Venezuelans remained strong, the middle and upper classes reacted negatively. Many privately sponsored projects were halted, and many doctors, scientists, entrepeneurs, and other private-sector Venezuelans left the country. His support for potential political allies in other countries led a number of Latin American nations to accuse him of meddling in their internal affairs.
Treated for cancer beginning in 2011, Chávez declared himself recovered before he ran for a third time in 2012; he won solidly but not by a landslide. Subsequent cancer surgery in Cuba led to complications, and his 2013 inauguration was postponed. He died in Mar., 2013, after returning to Venezuela. Vice President Nicolás Maduro Moros succeeded him as interim president.
See A. Guevara, Chávez, Venezuela and the New Latin America: An Interview with Hugo Chávez (2005) and Understanding the Venezuelan Revolution: Chavez Talks to Marta Harnecker (2005); biographies by B. Jones (2007), C. Marcano and A. B. Tyszka (2007), and R. Carroll (2013); studies by N. Kozloff (2006), J. Corrales and M. Penfold (2010), R. Gott (2d ed., 2011), and R. Carroll (2013).
"Chávez Frías, Hugo Rafael." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chavez-frias-hugo-rafael
"Chávez Frías, Hugo Rafael." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chavez-frias-hugo-rafael
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.