Charles XI (king of Sweden)
Charles XI, 1655–97, king of Sweden (1660–97), son and successor of Charles X. Charles ascended the throne at the age of five, so a council of regency ruled until 1672. The regency ended Swedish wars with favorable peace treaties (see Charles X), but mismanaged internal affairs. On reaching his majority Charles obtained from the Riksdag the restitution of the crown lands that had been given away. Sweden was involved in the third of the Dutch Wars as an ally of Louis XIV. Charles was defeated (1675) at Fehrbellin by Frederick William of Brandenburg, who overran Swedish Pomerania, known also as Hither Pomerania. Against Denmark Charles was more successful, particularly at Landskrona (1677). At the Treaty of Saint-Germain (1679) with Brandenburg, Charles, through the influence of Louis XIV, regained Hither Pomerania. The Peace of Lund (1679) with Denmark drew the Scandinavian nations closer together, and in 1680, Charles married Princess Ulrika of Denmark. In Sweden Charles set about increasing the royal power at the expense of the nobles. The Riksdag of 1682 gave him absolute power, which he used efficiently. His son succeeded him as Charles XII.