Calixtus III, Callixtus III, or Callistus III, 1378–1458, pope (1455–58), a Spaniard (b. Játiva) named Alonso de Borja or, in Italian, Alfonso Borgia; successor of Nicholas V. He acted as arbitrator between his friend Alfonso V of Aragón and the papacy, and for this he was made a cardinal (1444). Calixtus was elected soon after the fall of Constantinople, and he promptly proclaimed a crusade against the Turks. He spared nothing to aid John Hunyadi, who won a victory with St. John Capistran at Belgrade (1456). In 1457, Calixtus turned to Scanderbeg, in Albania, sent him money, and named him captain general of the crusade. Calixtus' reign was embittered by a quarrel with Alfonso, who expected returns, notably the march of Ancona, for his friendship. The pope would not give away church lands and resented Alfonso's failure to help the crusade. Calixtus' nepotism gave the Borgia family its position in Italy. Calixtus was, like other Borgias, an able administrator. He was succeeded by Pius II.
"Calixtus III." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 17, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/calixtus-iii
"Calixtus III." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/calixtus-iii
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.