Calixtus II, Callixtus II, or Callistus II, d. 1124, pope (1119–24), named Guy of Burgundy, successor of Gelasius II. The son of count William I of Burgundy, he was archbishop of Vienne during the investiture controversy with Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. When Gelasius died while in exile in France, Calixtus was consecrated pope at Vienne. He immediately summoned a large council at Reims (1119) that proceeded to anathematize the emperor and the antipope that Henry had installed (1118), Gregory VIII. Public reaction sided with the pope and the antipope was imprisoned. Henry thereupon agreed to sign (1122) the famous Concordat (see Worms, Concordat of), a compromise that recognized the rights of the church in selecting its leadership. Thus was the investiture controversy ended and the reform program of Gregory VII realized. Calixtus then called to Rome (1123) a great council in Western Europe (see Lateran Council, First) to ratify the achievements of Pope Gregory VII. He was succeeded by Honorius II.
"Calixtus II." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 19, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/calixtus-ii
"Calixtus II." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/calixtus-ii
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.