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Buyid (bōō´yĬd), Shiite Islamic dynasty of N Persian descent that controlled Iraq and Persia from c.945 to 1060; founded by the sons of Buyeh. In the 930s, Buyeh's sons (Ali, Hasan, and Ahmad) seized such cities as Isfahan, Kerman, Rayy, and Baghdad. With the capture of the Abbasid capital, Baghdad, in 945, the Buyids assumed control of the Abassid Empire. Under their dynasty the Sunni caliphs were reduced to administrative figureheads, while Ahmed ruled under the title of amir al-umara, or chief commander. Buyid control peaked during the reign (949–83) of Adud ad-Dawlah, who increased the dynasty's territorial domain, adding Oman, Tabaristan, and Jorjan. He also made himself sole ruler, eliminating the temporal functions of the caliph. Public buildings, hospitals, and Amir's Dam across the Kur River were built during his rule. Discord among later Buyid leaders led to the eventual decline of their power by 1060; they were replaced by other dynasties, who divided Buyid territory. The Seljuks (see Turks), first under Tughril Beg, ruled most of their territory.

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