Giuliano Amato, 1938–, Italian lawyer and political leader, premier of Italy (1992–93, 2000–2001), b. Turin. He has taught at several universities, including Sapienza Univ. of Rome (1975–97). A Socialist, he was first elected to parliament in 1983 and has served in a number of government posts including deputy premier (1987–88), treasury minister (1987–89, 1999–2000), and interior minister (2006–8). During his first term as premier, investigations into the corruption scandals around former premier Bettino Craxi led to the arrests of hundreds of business and political figures. An independent from 1994, Amato joined the Democrats of the Left (later the Democratic party) in 1998. During his second term, he promoted economic and political reforms. In 2001–3 he served as a vice president of the European Convention, which was charged with drafting a new constitution for the European Union.