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Alentejo (əlāntā´zhŏŏ), historic province, SE Portugal, now divided into Altro (Upper) Alentejo (4,888 sq mi/12,660 sq km) and Baixo (Lower) Alentejo (5,318 sq mi/13,774 sq km). The capital of Altro Alentejo is Évora, and the capital of Baixo Alentejo is Beja. The historic province has been further subdivided into the districts of Beja, Évora, and most of Setúbal and Portalegre. Alentejo, "the granary of Portugal," is drained by the Guadiana River and tributaries of the Sado River. Sheep, horses, cattle, and hogs are raised, and wheat, grains, olives, and fruits are grown. Alentejo produces over half of the world's cork. There are significant wind and solar electrical generation facilities in the region. Alentejo was involved in Portugal's many wars with Castile. The name was formerly spelled Alemtejo.

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