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herb

herb / (h)ərb/ • n. 1. any plant with leaves, seeds, or flowers used for flavoring, food, medicine, or perfume: bundles of dried herbs | [as adj.] a formal herb garden. ∎  a part of such a plant as used in cooking: a potato base topped with tomatoes, cheese, and herbs. 2. Bot. any seed-bearing plant that does not have a woody stem and dies down to the ground after flowering. ORIGIN: Middle English: via Old French from Latin herba ‘grass, green crops, herb.’ Although herb has always been spelled with an h, pronunciation without it was usual in British English until the 19th cent. and is still standard in the U.S.

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herb

herb (ûrb, hûrb), name for any plant that is used medicinally or as a spice and for the useful product of such a plant. Herbs as condiments and seasonings are still important in culinary art; the use of medicinal herbs, however, has waned since the advent of prescription and synthetic medicines, although plants remain a major source of drugs. The term herb is also applied to all herbaceous plants as distinguished from woody plants.

See R. E. Clarkson, Herbs, their Culture and Uses (1966); G. B. Foster, Herbs for Every Garden (rev. ed. 1973); A. and C. Krochmal, A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of the United States (1974).

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herb

herb herb of grace the plant rue; the name is supposed to derive (like the synonymous herb of repentance), from the coincidence of the name with the noun and verb rue ‘repent, repentance’. The name is probably now best-known from Shakespeare, as in Richard II: ‘I'll set a bank of rue, sour herb of grace.’

See also better a dinner of herbs where love is.

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herb

herb XIII. ME. (h)erbe — OF. erbe (mod. herbe) :- L. herba grass, green crops, herb. The pronunc. without initial aspirate was regular till early XIX.
So herbaceous XVII. f. L. herbage XIV. — OF. herbal book treating of plants. XVI. — medL.; whence herbalist XVI. herbarium collection of dried plants. XVIII. — late L.; see -ARY.

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herb

herb
1. A herbaceous plant, i.e. a seed-bearing plant that does not form hard woody tissue.

2. A plant with medicinal or culinary uses. Culinary herbs are usually plants whose leaves are used for flavouring food; examples are mint and parsley.

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herb

herb Seed-bearing plant, usually with a soft stem that withers away after one growing season. Most herbs are angiosperms. The term is also applied to any plant used as a flavouring, seasoning or medicine, such as thyme, sage, and mint.

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herb

herb A small, non-woody, seed-bearing plant in which all the aerial parts die back at the end of each growing season. Compare shrub; subshrub; and tree.

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herb

herb A small, non-woody seed-bearing plant in which all the aerial parts die back at the end of each growing season. Compare SHRUB; SUBSHRUB; and TREE.

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herb

herbacerb, blurb, curb, disturb, herb, kerb, perturb, Serb, superb, verb •suburb • potherb • willowherb •exurb • adverb • proverb

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Herb

Herb

An herb is an aromatic plant used for cooking, medicinal purposes, insect repellants, dye sources, and sometimes for their attractive qualities. Herbs are not necessarily plants that are taxonomically related to each otherwhat these plants share is a usefulness to humans, not an evolutionary lineage.

In general, herbs are nonwoody plants grown from seed, and they can be annual, biennial, or perennial species. Plants that grow from bulbs, such as the species of crocus (Crocus sativus) from which is saffron derived, are not considered herbs. Nor are aromatic woody plants, such as the sweet bay (Laurus nobilis) or common pepper (Piper nigrum), which are spices.

A wide variety of herbs that are commonly cultivated. A few that are frequently used as foods are briefly described below.

The parsley (Petroselinum hortense) is a biennial plant in the carrot family (Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). The original range of this species was the Mediterranean region, from Spain to Greece. This aromatic plant is commonly used to flavor cooked foods, and as an attractive garnish of other foods. A variety known as the turnip parsley (P. h. tuberosum) is cultivated for its thick aromatic root, which is used in soups and stews.

Dill (Anethum graveolus) is another member of the carrot family, also native to the Mediterranean region. It is an annual plant, and is used to flavor a wide range of cooked dishes, as well as pickled cucumbers and other vegetables.

Caraway (Carum carvi) is a biennial umbellifer. The seeds of caraway are mostly used to flavor cheeses and breads, and also a liqueur known as kummel. The seeds of anise or aniseed (Pimpinella anisum) are used to flavor foods, to manufacture candies, and a liqueur known as anisette.

A number of herbs are derived from species in the mint family (Menthaceae). The common mint (Mentha arvensis), spearmint (M. spicata), and peppermint (M. piperita) are used to flavor candies, chewing gum, and toothpaste, and are sometimes prepared as condiments to serve with meats and other foods. Sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana) is used to flavor some cooked meats and stews. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is used to flavor cooked foods, and in toothpaste and mouthwash.

Other herbs are derived from plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The seeds of mustard (Brassica alba), garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and white mustard (Sinapis alba) are ground with vinegar to produce spicy condiments known as table mustard. The root of horse radish (Cochlearia armoracea) is also ground with vinegar to produce a sharp-tasting condiment, often served with cooked meats.

Although they may be nutritious in their own right, most herbs are too strong tasting to be eaten in large quantities. However, these plants provide a very useful service by enhancing the flavor of other foods. Many people are great fans of the use of herbs, and they may grow a diversity of these plants in their own herb gardens, to ensure a fresh supply of these flavorful and aromatic plants.

Bill Freedman

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Herb

Herb

An herb is an aromatic plant that is used by people most commonly in cooking, but sometimes for medicinal purposes, as an insect repellant, as a source of dye, and sometimes for their attractive aesthetics. Herbs are not necessarily plants that are taxonomically related to each other—what these plants share is a usefulness to humans, not an evolutionary lineage.

In general, herbs are non-woody plants that are grown from seed, and they can be annual, biennial, or perennial species . Plants that grow from bulbs, such as the species of crocus (Crocus sativus) that saffron is derived from, are not considered to be herbs. Nor are aromatic woody plants, such as the sweet bay (Laurus nobilis) or common pepper (Piper nigrum), which are considered to be spices.

There is a wide variety of herbs that are commonly cultivated. A few of the ones that are frequently used as foods are briefly described below.

The parsley (Petroselinum hortense) is a biennial plant in the carrot family (Umbelliferae or Apiaceae). The original range of this species was the Mediterranean region, from Spain to Greece. This aromatic plant is commonly used to flavor cooked meals, and as an attractive garnish of other foods. A variety known as the turnip-parsley (P. h. tuberosum) is cultivated for its thick, aromatic root, which is used in soups and stews.

Dill (Anethum graveolus) is another member of the carrot family, also native to the Mediterranean region. It is an annual plant, and is used to flavor a wide range of cooked dishes, as well as pickled cucumbers and other vegetables .


Caraway (Carum carvi) is a biennial umbellifer. The seeds of caraway are mostly used to flavor cheeses and breads, and also a liqueur known as kummel. The seeds of anise or aniseed (Pimpinella anisum) are used to flavor foods, to manufacture candies, and a liqueur known as anisette.

A number of herbs are derived from species in the mint family (Menthaceae). The common mint (Mentha arvensis), spearmint (M. spicata), and peppermint (M. piperita) are used to flavor candies, chewing gum, and toothpaste, and are sometimes prepared as condiments to serve with meats and other foods. Sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana) is used to flavor some cooked meats and stews. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is used to flavor cooked foods, and in toothpaste and mouthwash.

Other herbs are derived from plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae) . The seeds of mustard (Brassica alba), garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and white mustard (Sinapis alba) are ground with vinegar to produce spicy condiments known as table mustard. The root of horse radish (Cochlearia armoracea) is also ground with vinegar to produce a sharp-tasting condiment, often served with cooked meats.

Although they may be nutritious in their own right, most herbs are too strong tasting to be eaten in large quantities. However, these plants provide a very useful service by enhancing the flavor of other foods. Many people are great fans of the use of herbs, and they may grow a diversity of these plants in their own herb gardens, to ensure a fresh supply of these flavorful and aromatic plants.

Bill Freedman

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http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.