Manaus, capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas. Founded in 1669, Manaus is located on the Rio Negro, about 1,000 miles upriver from the mouth of the Amazon, and is the main port in the Amazonian interior.
Manaus was a small settlement in 1867, when the Brazilian government opened the Amazon River to international trade. The forests surrounding Manaus were rich in rubber trees, and from the 1870s on, Brazilian and foreign merchants flocked to the inland capital to profit from the booming rubber trade.
The city entered its heyday in the 1890s, when Manaus became the major center for Amazonian exports; by 1910 the urban population had grown to nearly 100,000 inhabitants. A classic boomtown, Manaus boasted the first electric street lighting in Brazil, piped water and gas, a system of floating docks, an ornate customshouse, and an elaborate opera house, crafted almost entirely from imported materials.
As an entrepôt that relied almost entirely on the rubber trade, Manaus was hit hard by the collapse of the wild rubber market in 1911. Population declined, trade plummeted, and the abandoned, decaying opera house stood as a monument to the excesses of the boom years. However, as the sole significant urban center in the western Amazon, Manaus survived the boom-bust cycle. In an effort to revive the Amazonian economy, in 1967 the Brazilian government declared Manaus a free port, thus generating a sharp increase in commercial activity and industrial development. Along with factories processing local products, Manaus is now home to several large, foreign-owned manufacturing plants producing consumer durables for the Brazilian market. As of 2006, Manaus had an estimated population of 1,688,524.
E. Bradford Burns, "Manaus, 1910: Portrait of a Boom Town," in Journal of Inter-American Studies 7, no. 3 (1965): 400-421.
Richard Collier, The River that God Forgot (1968).
Barbara Weinstein, The Amazon Rubber Boom, 1850–1920 (1983).
Aguiar, José Vicente de Souza. Manaus: Praça, café, colégio e cinema nos anos 50 e 60. Manaus: Editora Valer: Edições Governo do Estado, 2002.
Markusen, Ann R., Yong-Sook Lee, and Sean DiGiovanna. Second Tier Cities: Rapid Growth Beyond the Metropolis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.
Oliveira, José Aldemir de, José Duarte Alecrim, and Thierry Ray Jehlen Gasnier. Cidade de Manaus: Visões interdisciplinares. Manaus: EDUA, 2003.
Manaus (mänous´), city (1996 pop. 1,158,265), capital of Amazonas state, NW Brazil, on the Rio Negro. It is the chief commercial and cultural center of the upper Amazon region and an important river port, with floating docks that can accommodate oceangoing vessels, including cruise ships. Surrounded by jungle, Manaus is the only major city in a c.600-mi (1000-km) radius. Founded in 1669, Manaus grew slowly until the late 19th cent., when the wild-rubber boom brought prosperity and short-lived splendor. In recent years, Manaus has regained importance because of renewed interest in the Amazon basin and its preservation, with accompanying ecotourism, and because of the discovery of oil nearby. The city is now the seat of several organizations dealing with Amazonian problems, is a free port, and has an international airport. Its manufactures include electronics, chemical products, and soap; there are distilling and ship construction industries. Manaus also exports Brazil nuts, rubber, jute, and rosewood oil. It has a cathedral, opera house (with an $8 million renovation completed in 1990), zoological and botanical gardens, an ecopark, and regional and native peoples museums.