MANARAH (Heb. מַנָרָה; derived from the Ar. al-Manara; for a time the Hebrew name Ramim, "heights," was used), kibbutz near the Israel-Lebanese border on the Naphtali Ridge of Upper Galilee, affiliated with Ha-Kibbutz ha-Me'uḥad. Its founding in 1943 by pioneers from Germany and Israel-born youth was a bold enterprise. The settlers had to climb a 5 mi. (8 km.), steep footpath to reach the site – 2,990 ft. (920 m.) above sea level – and withstand isolation in a place where the winter is snowy and stormy, and where no water sources are present in summer. In the Israel *War of Independence (1948), the settlers held out under enemy siege. In violation of the cease-fire arrangements the surrounding positions were occupied by irregular Arab forces commanded by Fawzī al-Qāuqjī (October 1948). The area and all of Galilee were liberated by Israel's Operation Ḥiram. In the first years after 1948 the water problem was solved when a pumping installation was built to bring water from the Einan Springs in the Ḥuleh Valley 2600 ft. (800 m.) below. A highway was paved and the kibbutz, in addition to its hill farming (mainly deciduous fruit), received fields and carp ponds in the valley. Manarah also had a metal factory for electricity grids and control panels, an amplifier rental service, guest rooms, and a big, modern chicken run. In 2002 its population was 248. The crusader castle ruins of Hūnīn (Chasteau Neuf) are located nearby.