Saint Johns

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Saint John's, city (2001 pop. 99,182), provincial capital, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, on the northeast coast of the Avalon Peninsula, SE Newfoundland island. Built on hills overlooking a fine harbor, it is the commercial and industrial center of the province and the base of its offshore oil industry and fishing fleet. The city's industries are chiefly related to offshore oil production and drilling and fishing, but tourism is also important. The city is mainly a service center, however, that relies heavily on civil service jobs for its stability.

Although the exact date of its first settlement is not known, St. John's is one of the oldest settlements in North America. In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession of the region for England. Since that time fishing boats from many countries have based there. The settlement was captured and recaptured by France and England, becoming permanently British in 1762 and serving as a naval base during the American Revolution and in the War of 1812. It was at St. John's that Marconi heard (1901) the first transatlantic wireless message and from there that the first nonstop transatlantic flight was made in 1919. The city has been partially destroyed by fire several times. It is the site of the provincial government offices, of Roman Catholic and Anglican cathedrals, of the Newfoundland Museum, of several science museums, and of Memorial Univ.

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Saint John's, city (1991 pop. 21,514), capital of Antigua and Barbuda, in the West Indies. St. John's, at the head of a harbor formed by an inlet, is the commercial center of the country. Tourism is important. The harbor has been dredged to accommodate deep-draft vessels. In the 18th cent. St. John's served as a headquarters for the Royal Navy in the West Indies.

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Saint Johns, river, 285 mi (459 km) long, rising in SE Fla., N of Lake Okeechobee, and flowing N to Jacksonville, where it turns abruptly eastward and enters the Atlantic Ocean 28 mi (45 km) away. It passes through eight lakes and receives many tributaries; the Oklawaha River (120 mi/193 km long), which receives the Silver Springs, is the most important. The dredged river is navigable c.170 mi (270 km) upstream; there is a 30-ft (9-m) channel from Jacksonville to the ocean. The lower third of the river forms part of the Intracoastal Waterway.

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Saint Johns, Que., Canada: see St. Jean.