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Bukhara (Buchara) Ancient city in w Uzbekistan, capital of the Bukhara region. Founded c.1st century ad, it was ruled by Arabs (7th–9th century), by Turks and Mongols (12th–15th century) and annexed to Russia in 1868; it was included in Uzbekistan (1924). It is an important Asian trade and cultural centre. Monuments include the 10th-century Mausoleum of Ismail Samani and the Ulugbek (1417–18). Industries: silk processing, rugs, handicrafts, textiles. Pop. (2002 est.) 268,000.