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Fijians

Fijians

PRONUNCIATION: FEE-gee-uhns

ALTERNATE NAMES: Taukei (indigenous Fijians)

LOCATION: Fiji

POPULATION: About 800,000

LANGUAGE: English; Fijian

RELIGION: Christianity (Methodist)

1 INTRODUCTION

The word "Fijians" refers to any of the inhabitants of the chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean called the Republic of Fiji. The islands became completely independent from Great Britain in October 1987. There are many ethnic groups who are originally from the Fiji Islands, but many of them share a number of cultural traits. In this chapter, the term "Fijian" is used to refer to the descendants of the original population of this chain of islands.

The Fijian word Taukei, which means "owner" or "original inhabitant," is now commonly used to refer to indigenous Fijians. This term and the ideas behind it have become very important recently. Using this concept of original ownership of the land has helped the Fijians to insist that they, and not the Europeans who colonized the islands, have the right to the land, its resources, and the political power of the country.

2 LOCATION

The Fijian archipelago (string of islands) lies in the western Pacific Ocean, southwest of Hawaii. There are more than 300 islands within the Fijian group, the two largest being Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. These two islands make up about 86 percent of the total 7,055 square miles (18,272 square kilometers) of land that makes up the island group. Only about 100 of the islands are inhabited or capable of human habitation.

The archaeological record of Fiji shows that humans first settled on the islands about 3,500 years ago. These people were probably migrants from the nearby islands of Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Fiji was a crossroads of the Pacific in prehistoric times. The distinctive cultures and physical features of the Fijian groups are evidence of that fact.

3 LANGUAGE

Linguists (people who study languages) usually refer to the Fijian language as a mix of about 300 dialects. Most villages in the island chain have their own dialect. Standard Fijian is based on the dialect spoken by the Bau. Missionaries to the islands chose this dialect as their standard for translation of the Bible. Wesleyan Missionaries developed a written form of Fijian in 1850. This has contributed to the high degree of literacy in the islands. English is the official language of the country.

4 FOLKLORE

Fiji has a large body of folklore, mythology, and oral history. One myth describes the protection of the island of Kadavu by a Shark God. This belief explains why the inhabitants of the island today have no fear of the sharks that are common in their island's reefs.

There is also a series of myths surrounding the Fijian practice of "fire walking." This practice, in which men walk on white- hot stones with no protection on their feet, has become in recent years an event staged to mainly to amuse tourists. Traditionally, however, fire walking was a ceremonial occasion.

For three days before the ceremony, men were not allowed to eat coconut or have any contact with women. A large pit would be dug and filled with large river stones. A fire would be built on top of the stones about six hours before the event. The coals would then be raked over the stones, eventually making them white hot. Then the men would walk across the stones without any protection for their feet and without burning themselves.

5 RELIGION

The overwhelming majority of Fijians, nearly 90 percent, are Methodist. Both Methodist and Catholic missionaries established churches, schools, and missions in Fiji in the 1800s. The Fijians were quick converts to the Wesleyan Methodist Church. This was probably due to the Methodists' use of Fijian in services and their early translation of the Bible into Standard Fijian.

6 MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Major holidays for Fijians include the annual Hibiscus Festival, a celebration of things Fijian; the Queen's Birthday in June; Fiji Day, October 13; Constitution Day, June 28; and Christmas Day and Boxing Day, December 26.

7 RITES OF PASSAGE

From the time they can understand, children take orders from older men in the family, especially their fathers. Respect and strict obedience are expected of children. Discipline and punishment is the job of the father. Mothers are more indulgent with their children.

In traditional Fiji society, women are expected to be virgins at the time of marriage. Premarital sexual relationships were not allowed within the society.

Disease and death were attributable to evil spirits in traditional Fijian culture. The funeral ceremony was very elaborate, especially for men of status. Groups with relationships to the deceased would visit the village and pay homage. A strict set of rules was enforced after death and they remained in effect for up to one hundred nights. Wives were strangled to accompany their dead husbands into the spirit world. It was believed that the god Ruvuyalo would kill the spirit of any man who did not have his wife accompanying him. This practice is no longer followed.

8 RELATIONSHIPS

The standard Fijian greeting is ni sa bula, or the informal bula. Visiting a person's house always entails removing one's shoes before entering.

9 LIVING CONDITIONS

The majority of houses on Viti Levu are made of wood and concrete blocks. Almost all homes have electricity and a piped water supply. On the smaller islands, houses are often constructed of local materials and have either thatched or iron roofs. Western-style houses are a sign of prosperity. Electricity is available in many rural areas. In very remote regions, people use kerosene or benzene lanterns.

Villages in rural areas are centered on a village green, called rara in Fijian. At either end of the rara, each village has a church and a village hall.

In the eighteenth century, Fijians developed a new type of ocean-going canoe. These ships were a great design invention and were much more maneuverable and faster than the other style of canoes that were being used by other island peoples in the area. It permitted Fijians to move more quickly between islands and to escape quickly after raids. These canoes were elaborately carved and decorated.

10 FAMILY LIFE

In traditional Fijian society, men were permitted to have more than one wife at a time. The more wives a man had, the higher his social status. Chiefs especially had many wives. This helped them to create political alliances among various villages. Once a couple is married, they usually live in the house of the groom's father. Because of this, most households were composed of an extended family. Extended families were under the leadership of one senior male. Divorce was easily accomplished by either the husband or the wife.

Family structure is very hierarchical, which means it is led by a strong figure whose authority cannot be questioned. The senior man in a family has the same kind of authority that tribal chiefs have. And within each family, power is granted according to age and gender. Any food, for instance, that is not eaten by the senior man cannot be eaten by anyone else. A woman's social position within the family is based on that of her husband, unless her family is of higher status than his.

11 CLOTHING

Traditional Fijian clothing for men is a native kilt called a sulu. Men and woman also wear Western-style clothing. The sulu is always worn during ceremonial occasions and has become more popular since the coup of 1987.

12 FOOD

The main staples of the traditional Fijian diet are taro root and cassava. Although sago palms are found on some of the Fijian Islands, this plant was never a staple as it was in other nearby islands of the Pacific. Fish and shellfish are still important foods in the current diet, as they were in the past.

13 EDUCATION

The literacy rate (percent of the population who can read and write) for the Republic of Fiji is estimated at 80 percent. Western education has been available in Fiji since European missionaries arrived. Mission schools were built by Methodist and Catholic missionaries. Today, primary education is free and compulsory. Rural villages often share a common school. Children between twelve and sixteen attend junior secondary school, which is not free. High school education can only be obtained in towns and cities. The University of the South Pacific is located in the capital city of Suva.

14 CULTURAL HERITAGE

Dancing is an important part of traditional Fijian culture. Men and women danced separately. Women's dances often used intricate and delicate hand gestures. Many of the men's dances suggested military exploits and involved aggressive posing with weapons. Both men and women had "sitting" dances. Singing was also important in traditional society. Today, Western-style instruments and singing styles have become popular.

15 EMPLOYMENT

Traditional Fijians were subsistence farmers, which means they raised just enough food to support themselves. Some Fijians continue this way of life today. They raise taro root and cassava. They supplement this diet with fish and other sea food. Agriculture is the traditional domain of men. Fishing and the collecting of marine resources are done by women.

Today, although about 60 percent of Fijians live in rural areas, the number of people willing to do the hard work of farming is decreasing. As in many less developed countries, young people often leave rural areas to find work in cities and towns. Tobacco and sugar are important cash crops in the Fijian economy.

16 SPORTS

Rugby is an important spectator and participant sport for Fijians. Soccer is very popular as well. Fiji sent participants to the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta and had very good performances from the athletes who competed in judo and swimming. Cricket is also popular in Fiji, but more so with the Indo-Fijian population there.

17 RECREATION

Among adult Fijian men, drinking the alcoholic beverage called yaqona (known as "kava") is an important social ritual. The sharing of kava accompanied the performance of pre-Christian religious events, political discussions, and the curing of illness. Kava drinking has become an important attraction for tourists who visit Fiji, although the event does not carry any of the ceremonial importance that it used to.

Electricity has made television, radio, video, and movies all popular forms of entertainment in Fijian cities, towns, and villages.

18 CRAFTS AND HOBBIES

Traditional crafts made by Fijian women include pottery, woven mats, and bark cloth. Men do a great deal of carving and sculpting in wood. They create beautiful spears, clubs, ceremonial bowls for kava drinking, and elaborately decorated seagoing canoes. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Fijians were well-known for their weapons, and especially their war clubs.

The Fijians had several types of war clubs, each designed to perform a special function in battle. "Throwers" were made to be thrown at an enemy and strike with the wide, knobbed butt. "Penetrators" had a spike with a weighted head. They were made of the heaviest wood available and were used only by the most skilled warriors. The club would make a single, fatal hole in the skull of the victim. According to tradition, a person killed in this manner was the most desired for cannibalism and the killer was honored.

19 SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Since the coup of 1987 and the constitution of 1990, Fijians have made it clear that they want to reclaim the resources and rights to self-determination that have been gradually taken from them. This has increased tensions between the Fijians and other ethnic groups, especially the Indo-Fijians.

20 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Crocombe, Ron. The South Pacific: An Introduction. New Zealand: Longman Paul Limited, 1987.

Mayer, Adrian. Indians in Fiji. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.

Siegel, Jeff. Language Contact in a Plantation Environment: A Sociolinguistic History of Fiji. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

WEBSITES

Tourism Council of the South Pacific. Fiji. [Online] Available http://www.tcsp.com/fi/400.htm, 1998.

World Travel Guide. Fiji. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/fj/gen.html, 1998.

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Indo-Fijians

Indo-Fijians

PRONUNCIATION: in-do-FEE-jee-uhns

LOCATION: Fiji

POPULATION: 43 percent of Fijian total

LANGUAGE: Fiji Hindustani (Fiji Hindi); English

RELIGION: Hinduism; Islam; Christianity

1 INTRODUCTION

Most Indo-Fijians are the descendants of indentured laborers brought to Fiji during the nineteenth century by the British. In the system of indentured labor, workers (who had been moved to a new country against their will) were forced to perform a job for little or no pay until they earned enough money to buy their freedom. The system was created to provide cheap workers for British colonies after the abolition of slavery in Britain and its colonies in 1833.

The first indentured laborers from India arrived in Fiji in 1879 and the indenture system lasted until 1916. Other immigrants from India arrived in Fiji in the early twentieth century, and they opened small shops in the coastal towns. The Indo-Fijians are part of the south Asian diaspora (a community of ethnically related displaced peoples) that includes the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius, Trinidad in the Caribbean, Guyana in South America, South Africa, and North America.

2 LOCATION

The Fijian archipelago (string of islands) is located in the western Pacific Ocean. The climate of Fiji is tropical with plenty of rainfall, sunshine, and high humidity. The largest islands within the 800-island group are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. The vast majority of Indo-Fijians reside on Viti Levu.

Today, Indo-Fijians make up around 43 percent of the total population. Before the military coup of 1987, Indo-Fijians made up close to 48 percent of the total population, but about 5 percent have moved to Australia, Canada, and the United States. In the 1960s, Indo-Fijians outnumbered the indigenous Fijians.

3 LANGUAGE

The overwhelming majority of Indo-Fijians speak Fiji Hindustani, or Fiji Hindi. This language developed out of contact between speakers of different dialects of Hindi/Urdu (one of the native languages of India) and their bosses on the colonial-era sugar plantations. Although Indian laborers could communicate fairly well, they had some difficulty at times being understood. Over time, a unified dialect emerged. Since then, it has become the language of Indo-Fijian identity.

4 FOLKLORE

The folklore of the Indo-Fijians derives from traditional Indian folklore. Important epic stories and myths such as the Rāmāyana and the Mahābhārata are read, chanted, and recounted by Indo-Fijians at ceremonies and celebrations. The epic drama of Rama and Sita is performed at most religious festivals.

5 RELIGION

The Indian laborers brought their religions with them to Fiji. Hinduism and Islam both exist on Fiji today, alongside Christianity and traditional forms of Fijian religious practice. The majority of the indentured laborers moved to Fiji were Hindu. As a result, Hinduism is the major religion among Indo-Fijians.

Hinduism is a polytheistic religion, meaning Hindus believe in a variety of gods. Each god has specific characteristics, functions, and powers. There are sects that are devoted to the worship of a particular god and shrines are created to provide offerings. These practices continue among the Indo-Fijian communities in Fiji and abroad.

6 MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Major holidays for Indo-Fijians center on the religious calendars. Hindus celebrate Diwali (the festival of lights) in early November and Holi (a festival of singing and light-hearted play). Families also sponsor pujas, which are ceremonies that include prayers, offerings, and feasts. Pujas take place on birthdays and other special occasions when it is appropriate to give thanks for good fortune and blessings. Muslim Indo-Fijians observe the fasting and prayer practices during the month of Ramadan. Other secular holidays include the Queen's Birthday, Boxing Day, and Fiji Day.

7 RITES OF PASSAGE

Indo-Fijians perform rituals at important transitional stages of the life cycle: birth, marriage, and death. The exact nature of these rituals is dictated by the religious faith of the families involved.

8 RELATIONSHIPS

The standard greeting in Fiji Hindi is namaste. This greeting comes directly from Hindi as spoken in India.

Dating was unknown among unmarried Indo-Fijians until late in the twentieth century. In the past, marriages were always arranged; this practice continues, but dating has been accepted. Interracial dating among Indo-Fijians and Fijians is disapproved of by both groups. Indo-Fijians do have dating relationships with other groups on the island, however, such as Europeans.

9 LIVING CONDITIONS

Fijian law dictated that non-Fijians could not live in Fijian villages. This law made for segregation between the Fijians and Indo-Fijians. Indo-Fijians had to create their own communities or move to the coastal towns. These would later become centers of commerce and trade that would provide for the economic prosperity of the Indo-Fijians.

Western-style housing made from concrete blocks or wood is the preferred style of housing for Indo-Fijians.

10 FAMILY LIFE

Many jobs in Indo-Fijian society are traditionally done by males only. Musicians, religious leaders, and cooks for public functions like weddings and pujas (worship ceremonies) are almost always men. Male children are usually preferred over female children. Male children are also usually given much more freedom and independence than females.

In most traditional societies of India, marriages are arranged by parents. In some cases, the couple has no say in the matter. In recent years, this system has become less rigid and couples have more choice in their selection of mates. Male offspring generally inherit the majority of their parents' property and are expected to divide it among themselves.

11 CLOTHING

Indo-Fijians men have worn Western-style clothes for some time now. Some women, however, still wear the traditional sari (a garment of draped cloth). Older women in particular only wear saris. Indo-Fijian women wear a lot of jewelry.

12 FOOD

Indentured Indian workers brought their styles of cooking and some of their food crops with them to Fiji in the nineteenth century. Roti, a staple bread served with every meal, and rice and curry, a hot spice, are the basis of Indo-Fijian food. Roti is used like a spoon to scoop up pieces of food and rice. Tradition requires that only the right hand be used when eating. The left hand must remain in the lap.

13 EDUCATION

Formal education for the children of indentured Indian laborers in Fiji did not begin until 1898. Schools were then opened by Catholic and Methodist missionaries who also opened mission schools for Fijian children much earlier. Indo-Fijians stress the importance of education with their children and many go on to complete advanced degrees at universities and colleges in other countries.

14 CULTURAL HERITAGE

Traditional music and film are both important among Indo-Fijians. Almost all of the entertainment that Indo-Fijians enjoy is produced outside of Fiji. The Indian film and music industries provide the latest hits from the most popular film and music stars of India. Most shops carry a wide selection of cassettes and videos, along with imported Indian foods. Traditional music and dance are also performed.

15 EMPLOYMENT

After the period of indenture, Indo-Fijians began to specialize in certain occupations. First, they took over the growing of sugar cane, a vey important cash crop. With the wealth from this they branched out into transportation, and also were in charge of most of the craft and retail trade.

Although they held little land, the Indo-Fijian population acquired control of the Fijian economy. This situation was a source of hostility between Indo-Fijians and Fijians. It ultimately led to the 1987 miliary coup. The majority of Indo-Fijians who left following the coup were shop owners and other retail merchants and bankers.

16 SPORTS

Cricket is a popular spectator and participant sport among Indo-Fijians. Other sports that have large followings in Fiji, like rugby, are not as important to Indo-Fijians.

17 RECREATION

Traditional south Asian forms of entertainment, including classical forms of music and dance, are enjoyed and practiced within the Indo-Fijian community. Music and dance academies have also been established by the Indo-Fijians that have left Fiji and moved to Sydney, Australia.

18 CRAFTS AND HOBBIES

Rural folk arts accompanied the south Asians who came to Fiji as indentured laborers. On the plantations, however, there was little time for the production of painting and sculpture. Pottery production and the painting and sculpting of religious images for local consumption was minimal during the early stages of Indo-Fijian history. Nowadays, religious images and other Indian products are imported directly from India.

19 SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Indo-Fijians still face difficulties living in Fiji. Although relations between the Indo-Fijians and Fijians have improved since 1988, there is still resentment and anger on both sides. The coup adversely affected the tourist industry, which has not regained the ground it had prior to the coup. The flight of Indo-Fijians after the coup resulted in the loss of over one-third of the nation's doctors, one-half of its lawyers, and a great number of teachers and nurses.

20 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Mayer, Adrian. Indians in Fiji. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.

Siegel, Jeff. Language Contact in a Plantation Environment: A Sociolinguistic History of Fiji. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

WEBSITES

Tourism Council of the South Pacific. Fiji. [Online] Available http://www.tcsp.com/fi/400.htm, 1998.

World Travel Guide. Fiji. [Online] Available http://www.wtgonline.com/country/fj/gen.html, 1998.

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Fijians

Fijians

PRONUNCIATION: FEE-gee-uhns
ALTERNATE NAMES: Taukei (indigenous Fijians)
LOCATION: Fiji
POPULATION: Approximately 828,000 (57% or 471,960 ethnic Fijians)
LANGUAGE: English; Fijian; Hindi are official languages of the Republic of Fiji
RELIGION: Christianity (Methodist)

INTRODUCTION

The term "Fijians" refers to any of the inhabitants of the chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean called the Republic of Fiji. The islands claimed independence from Great Britain in 1970 but remained part of the Commonwealth until October 1987, when they became the Republic of Fiji. Although there are a great number of ethnic groups indigenous to the Fiji Islands, they all share a number of cultural traits. Here the term "Fijian" is used to refer to the descendants of the indigenous population of this chain of islands. The Fijian word Taukei is now being used to refer to this group as opposed to other ethnic groups that inhabit the islands. In Fijian the word translates as "owner" or "original inhabitant." This term and the concept behind it have become more important recently as indigenous Fijians have sought to reestablish their claims to the land, resources, and political authority in Fiji.

LOCATION AND HOMELAND

The Fijian archipelago lies in the western Pacific Ocean, southwest of Hawaii. There are more than 300 islands within the Fijian group, the two largest being Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. These two islands account for around 86% of the total 18,272 sq km (7,055 sq mi) of land that makes up the island group. Of the approximately 300 islands, only about 100 are either inhabited or capable of human habitation. Most of the larger islands are referred to as "high islands." High islands are volcanic in nature and have high, rugged mountain peaks with deep, winding valleys and quick flowing streams and rivers. The deltas that have been created by the networks of waterways are very fertile and have been the primary areas of human settlement and farming from the earliest times. The archaeological record of Fiji indicates that the first human habitation of the archipelago was approximately 3,500 years ago. The first inhabitants were likely migrants from nearby Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Fiji was a crossroads of the Pacific in prehistoric times. The distinctive cultures and physical features of the Fijian groups are evidence of that fact.

LANGUAGE

The Fijian language belongs to the Oceanic branch of the Austronesian language family. Linguists usually refer to the Fijian language as a composite of approximately 300 dialects defined by village membership—that is to say, people from different villages speak different dialects of Fijian. Standard Fijian is based on the dialect spoken by the Bau. This dialect had also formed the basis for an earlier form of Fijian that was used to communicate more easily across dialect boundaries in the time before the arrival of Europeans. Missionaries to the islands chose this dialect as their standard for translation of the Bible. Wesleyan Missionaries developed a written form of Fijian in 1850, which has contributed to the high degree of literacy in the islands. English is the official language of the country.

FOLKLORE

Fiji has a large body of folklore, mythology, and oral history. Many stories revolve around the feats of cultural heroes and gods. One myth details the protection of the island of Kadavu by the Shark God and explains why the inhabitants of the island today have no fear of the sharks which populate their island's reefs. There is also a series of myths which account for the Fiji practice of "fire walking," which has now become an important tourist event. Traditional fire walking was a ceremonial occasion accompanied by symbolic acts and the reenactment of the myth concerning fire walking. Before the fire walking ceremony, men would separate from any contact with women for a period of three days. Men would also refrain from eating coconut during this time. A large pit would be dug and filled with large river stones. A fire would be built on top of the stones about six hours before the event. The coals would be raked over the stones, eventually making the stones become white hot. Then the men would walk the circumference of the pit without any protection for their feet and without any apparent ill effects.

RELIGION

The overwhelming majority of indigenous Fijians, nearly 90%, are Methodist. Both Methodist and Catholic missionaries established churches, schools, and missions in Fiji in the 1800s. The Fijians were quick converts to the Wesleyan Methodist Church, probably due, in part, to the Methodists' use of Fijian in services and their early translation of the Bible into Standard Fijian. The Catholic Church still used Latin in mass at that time, and Fijians were not interested in listening to a language that they could not understand.

MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Major holidays for Fijians include the annual Hibiscus Festival, a celebration of things Fijian; Queen of England's Birthday in June; Fiji Day, October 13; Constitution Day, June 28; and Christmas Day and Boxing Day, December 26.

RITES OF PASSAGE

Children are socialized to recognize the social hierarchy of the extended family and the society as a whole. From the time they can understand, children take orders from the senior males in the family, especially their fathers. Respect and strict obedience are expected of their children by fathers. Discipline and punishment is the domain of the father. Mothers are more indulgent with their children.

In traditional Fiji society, women are expected to be virgins at the time of marriage. Premarital sexual relationships were not advocated within the society.

Disease and death were attributable to malevolent spirits in traditional Fijian culture. The mortuary ceremony was once very elaborate, especially for men of status. Groups with relationships to the deceased would visit the village and pay homage to the corpse. A set of taboos were enforced after the death and they remained in effect for up to 100 nights. In the past, wives were strangled to accompany their dead husbands into the spirit world. It was believed that the god Ruvuyalo would kill the spirit of any man who did not have his spouse accompanying him.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

The standard Fijian greeting is ni sa bula, or the informal bula. Visiting a person's house always entails removing the shoes before entering.

LIVING CONDITIONS

The majority of houses on Viti Levu are made of wood and concrete breeze blocks. Almost all homes have electricity and a piped water supply. On the smaller islands, houses are often constructed of local materials and have either thatched or corrugated iron roofs. Western-style houses are a sign of prosperity. Electricity is available in many rural areas. In very remote regions, people still use kerosene or benzene lanterns. Villages in rural areas are centered on a village green, called rara in Fijian. At either end of the rara, each village has a church and a village hall. People who have left traditional villages to live in cities and towns often return for the Christmas season. In the 18th century, Fijians developed a new type of ocean-going double-hulled canoe. This type of canoe had a large mast set in the middle of the larger hulled vessel, and there was no significant difference between the head and stern. These ships were more maneuverable and faster than the other style of double-hulled canoes that were being used in other Oceanic societies. It permitted the Fijians of the time to move more quickly between islands and to escape quickly after raids. These canoes were elaborately carved and decorated.

FAMILY LIFE

In traditional Fijian society, the preferred marriage was between cross-cousins. Men were permitted to have more than one wife at a time, and the more wives a man had, the higher his social status. Chiefs especially had many wives and created a number of political alliances in the process. After a couple was married, they would typically reside in the house of the groom's father. Each household was composed of an extended family. Each extended family was under the leadership of one senior male. Divorce was easily accomplished by either the husband or the wife.

Family structure is very hierarchical. This reflects the larger pattern of hierarchy and position in Fijian society. The senior male of the family is equivalent to the chief of the family line. The higher the social position in the family, the more respect that has to be given to the person. Any food that is not eaten by the senior male cannot be eaten by anyone else. A woman's social position within an extended family is traditionally based on that of her husband, unless her family is of higher status than his.

CLOTHING

Traditional Fijian clothing for men is a native kilt called a sulu. Men also wear Western-style clothing, as do many women. The sulu is always worn during ceremonial occasions and has seen a renaissance due to social and political developments since the coup of 1987.

FOOD

The main staples of the traditional Fijian diet are taro root and cassava. Although sago palms are found on some of the Fijian Islands, this plant was never a staple foodstuff as it was in other nearby islands of the Pacific. Fish and shellfish are still important foods in the current diet, as they were in the past. Western foodstuffs and cooking techniques have become prominent in Fijian society.

EDUCATION

The literacy rate for the Republic of Fiji is estimated at 93%. Western education has been available in Fiji since European missionaries became established in the islands. Mission schools were built for the indigenous Fijians by Methodist and Catholic missionaries. Nowadays, primary education is free and compulsory. Villages in rural areas often share a common school. Adolescents between the ages of 12 and 16 attend junior secondary school, which is not free. High school education can only be obtained in towns and cities. The University of the South Pacific is located in the capital city of Suva.

CULTURAL HERITAGE

Dancing is an important part of traditional Fijian culture. Men and women danced separately. Women's dances often utilized intricate and delicate hand gestures. Many of the men's dances related to military exploits and involved aggressive posing with weapons. Both men and women had "sitting" dances. Singing was also important in traditional society. In the present day, Western-style instruments and singing styles have become popular.

WORK

Traditional Fijians engaged in subsistence horticulture, and some continue to do so into the present time. They raised taro root and cassava as well as fished and collected marine resources. Agriculture was the traditional domain of men. Fishing and the collecting of marine resources were tasks allocated to women. Now, although around 60% of Fijians are still rural, the loss of labor due to urban migration is a problem for village organization. Many younger Fijians seek wage labor opportunities in the towns and cities. Tobacco and sugar are important cash crops in the Fijian economy.

SPORTS

Rugby is an important spectator and participant sport for Fijians. Rugby Union is considered the national sport of Fiji. The Fijian team qualified for the Rugby World Cup in 2003. Soccer is another important sport for Fijians. Fiji sent participants to the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta and had very good performances from the athletes who competed in judo and swimming. Cricket is also popular in Fiji, but more so with the Indo-Fijian population there.

ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION

One form of social intercourse among adult Fijian men is the consumption of yaqona, known as "kava." Kava is an intoxicating beverage made through the pounding, grating, or chewing of the root of the shrub Piper methysticum. Kava drinking has a definite set of social rules. The sharing of kava accompanied the performance of pre-Christian religious events, political discussions, the curing of illness, and restricted social interaction of adult, "high status" men in Fijian villages. Kava drinking has become an important attraction for tourists who visit Fiji, although the event does not carry any of the ceremonial importance that it did in traditional contexts.

Electricity has made television, radio, video, and movies all popular forms of entertainment in Fijian cities, towns, and villages.

FOLK ART, CRAFTS, AND HOBBIES

Traditional crafts made by Fijian women include pottery, woven mats, and bark cloth. Men did a great deal of carving and sculpting in wood; creating beautiful spears, clubs, ceremonial bowls for kava drinking; and elaborately decorated double-hulled seagoing canoes. In precontact times, the Fijians were well-known for their armory and especially their war clubs. The Fijians had several types of war clubs, each designed to perform a special function in battle. "Throwers" were constructed to be thrown at an enemy and strike with the wide, knobbed butt. "Penetrators" had a spike with a weighted head. They were made of the heaviest wood available and were used only by the most skilled warriors. The club would make a single, fatal hole in the skull of the victim. According to tradition, a person killed in this manner was the most desired for cannibalism and the killer received much prestige.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS

With the coup of 1987 and the constitution of 1990, Fijians have made it clear that they want to reclaim the resources and rights to self-determination that have gradually slipped away from them. This has heightened tensions between the Fijians and the other ethnic groups of the island, especially the Indo-Fijians.

GENDER ISSUES

Recent statistics for the Republic of Fiji indicate that females and males are now equally educated. There are no gender-based differences in literacy, and in fact, females at all levels have a somewhat higher literacy percentage. School enrollments for males and females are equal. In fact 1995 enrolment figures show girls comprising 48.6% of all primary level enrolments and a little over 50% of total enrollments at secondary level. Female attendance at tertiary level institutions has also significantly increased. However, women still tend to dominate in the courses traditionally considered for females (nurses, secretaries, teachers etc.) while males still dominate course such as engineering and marine studies. Enrolments at the Fiji Institute of Technology in 1996 for example, for these male dominated fields showed less than 3% were females. On the other hand the enrolments for secretarial studies and for office administration were over 98% females. These statistics reflect the prevailing attitudes on gender roles which will take considerable time to change.

The Fiji Women's Crisis Center (FWCC) is a feminist non-government organization that was established in 1984 to deal with the social problem of violence against women and children. FWCC is the first organization of its kind in the Pacific region.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Crocombe, Ron. The South Pacific: An Introduction. New Zealand: Longman Paul Limited, 1987.

Fiji Times Online. http://www.fijitimes.com/ (10 June 2008).

Mayer, Adrian. Indians in Fiji. London: Oxford University Press, 1963

Siegel, Jeff. Language Contact in a Plantation Environment: A Sociolinguistic History of Fiji. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

—by J. Williams

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Indo-Fijians

Indo-Fijians

PRONUNCIATION: in-do-FEE-jee-uhns
LOCATION: Fiji
POPULATION: 311,591 (38% of total Fijian population) in 2007
LANGUAGE: Fiji Hindustani (Fiji Hindi); Tamil; Punjabi; Gujarati; English
RELIGION: Hinduism; Islam; Christianity

INTRODUCTION

The majority of the present-day Indo-Fijians are the descendants of indentured laborers who were brought to Fiji during the 19th century. The Indian indenture system was established to provide labor for British colonies after the abolition of slavery in Britain and her colonies in 1833. The first indentured laborers from India arrived in Fiji in 1879 and the indenture system in Fiji lasted until 1916. Other immigrants from India arrived in Fiji in the early 20th century, although they were not indentured laborers. Most of these immigrants were Punjabi or Gujarati, from northwestern India, while a number of the indentured laborers had been from southern India. The Gujaratis and Punjabis opened small shops in the coastal towns of colonial Fiji. The Indo-Fijians are part of the South Asian Diaspora that includes the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius, Trinidad in the Caribbean, Guyana in South America, South Africa, and North America.

LOCATION AND HOMELAND

The Fijian archipelago is located in the western Pacific Ocean. The climate of Fiji is tropical with plenty of rainfall, sunshine, and high humidity. The largest islands within the 800-island group are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. These two islands account for about 85% of the total land mass of Fiji. Around 100 of the islands in the Fijian chain are either inhabited or inhabitable. The vast majority of Indo-Fijians reside on Viti Levu.

According to the most recent population statistics, Indo-Fijians make up around 37% of the total population in Fiji. At the time before the military coup of 1987, Indo-Fijians made up close to 48% of the total population: a significant portion of the decrease is attributable to immigration to Australia, Canada, and the United States. It has been estimated that over 100,000 Indo-Fijians have left the country since the first Fijian-backed coup in 1987. In the 1960s, Indo-Fijians outnumbered the indigenous Fijians.

LANGUAGE

The overwhelming majority of Indo-Fijians speak a language referred to as Fiji Hindustani, or Fiji Hindi. A very small number speak other south Asian languages such as Tamil, Gujarati, Punjabi, Malayalam, and Telugu. Fiji Hindustani developed out of contact between speakers of different dialects of Hindi/Urdu and their overseers on the colonial-era sugar plantations. Although the Indian laborers could communicate fairly well across dialect boundaries, they still encountered some idiosyncratic problems. Over time, a unified dialect emerged that became the language of Indo-Fijian identity. There have been several academic studies of Fiji Hindi, and there are existing course materials available in many university libraries. Some Chinese and Fijians speak a simplified form of Fiji Hindi that differs from that spoken by the Indo-Fijians themselves. Indo-Fijians also speak English, and many older Indo-Fijians also spoke Pidgin Fijian when they were younger.

FOLKLORE

The folklore of the Indo-Fijians derives from traditional Indian folklore. Important cultural epics such as the Râmâyana and the Mahâbarata are read, chanted, and recounted by Indo-Fijians at ceremonies and celebrations. The epic drama of Rama and Sita is performed at most religious festivals.

RELIGION

The Indian laborers brought their religions with them to Fiji. Hinduism and Islam both exist on Fiji today, alongside Christianity and indigenous forms of Fijian religious practice. The majority of indentured laborers were Hindu, and as a result, Hinduism is the major religion among Indo-Fijians. A total of approximately 77% of all Indo-Fijians follow Hinduism. The caste system is an important component of Hinduism as it is practiced in India. The caste system is one of ascribed status, whereby an individual is born into a particular socio-occupational grouping. There are restrictions on the interactions between certain groups, especially in the areas of marriage, touching, and the sharing of food. The system of indenture fundamentally modified the Hindu caste system in Fiji. Restrictions were relaxed and Indo-Fijians were able to interact more as a group. The caste component of their religion was almost completely obliterated. Temples and mosques have been constructed for religious gatherings and rituals.

Hinduism is a polytheistic religion. Hindus believe in a variety of deities, each with specific attributes, domains, functions, and powers. There are sects that are devoted to the worship of a particular deity, and shrines are created to provide offerings for the deity. These practices continue among the Indo-Fijian communities in Fiji and abroad. Although there has been considerable Christian influence in Fiji in terms of missions and mission schools, the Indo-Fijian population has not been very receptive to conversion. Less than 5% of the Indo-Fijian population is Christian.

MAJOR HOLIDAYS

Major holidays for Indo-Fijians center on the religious calendars. Hindus celebrate Diwali (the festival of lights) in early November and Holi (a festival of singing and light-hearted play). Families also sponsor pujas, which are ceremonies that include prayers, offerings, and feasts. Pujas take place on birthdays and other special occasions when it is appropriate to give thanks for good fortune and blessings. Muslim Indo-Fijians observe the fasting and prayer practices during the month of Ramadan. Other secular holidays include the Queen's Birthday, Boxing Day, and Fiji Day.

RITES OF PASSAGE

Indo-Fijians perform rituals at important transitional stages of the life cycle: birth, marriage, and death. The exact nature of these rituals is dictated by the religious faith of the families involved.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

The standard greeting in Fiji Hindi is namaste. This greeting derives directly from Hindi as spoken in India.

Dating was unknown among unmarried Indo-Fijians until late in this century. Marriages were always arranged, as they are in most Indian communities throughout the world. Arranged marriages still continue now, but dating is seen as a means to create a marriage. Interracial dating among Indo-Fijians and Fijians is disapproved of by both groups, though Indo-Fijians do have dating relationships with other non-Fijians.

LIVING CONDITIONS

Fijian law dictated that non-Fijians could not live in Fijian villages. This established a precedent for segregation between the Fijians and Indo-Fijians in Fiji. Indo-Fijians established their own communities or moved to the coastal towns, which would later become the centers of commerce and trade that would provide for the economic prosperity of the Indo-Fijians.

Western-style housing made from concrete blocks or wood is the preferred style of housing for Indo-Fijians. Wattle and daub houses were built by the first waves of indentured laborers to Fiji.

FAMILY LIFE

In most traditional societies of India, marriages are arranged by the parents of the prospective bride and groom. In the most extreme cases, the couple had no say in the matter whatsoever. Caste distinctions and restrictions guided the arranged choices in most cases. In colonial Fiji, caste distinctions were broken down and became much less of a factor in marriage negotiations. Men greatly outnumbered women in the colonial period. In the present day, couples have more choice in their selection of mates. Male offspring generally inherit the majority of their parents' property and are expected to divide it among themselves.

CLOTHING

Indo-Fijians men have adopted Western-style trousers and shirts for some time now. Some women, however, still wear the traditional saris (a garment of draped cloth). Older women in particular only wear saris. Indo-Fijian women, like Indian women almost everywhere, are adorned with jewelry.

FOOD

Indentured Indian workers brought their styles of cooking and some of their food crops with them to Fiji in the 19th century. Roti, a staple bread served with every meal, and rice and curry dishes form the basis of Indo-Fijian cuisine. The traditional eating utensils are the hands. Pollution taboos require that only the right hand be used when eating; the left hand remains in the person's lap. Roti is used like an eating utensil to scoop up pieces of food and rice.

Indo-Fijian immigrants to Australia have opened restaurants that are popular with Indians, Australians, and Indo-Fijians alike. The spices and the use of coconut products in many of the curries belie the south Indian ancestry of many of the Indo-Fijians.

EDUCATION

Formal education for the children of indentured Indian laborers in Fiji did not begin until 1898. These schools were opened by the Catholic and Methodist missionaries who had also opened mission schools for the Fijian children much earlier. Indo-Fijians stress the importance of education with their children and many go on to complete advanced degrees at universities and colleges abroad.

CULTURAL HERITAGE

Traditional music and film music are both important in Fiji among Indo-Fijians. Almost all of the cultural entertainment that Indo-Fijians consume is produced outside of Fiji. The importation of Indian film music provides the latest hits from the most popular film stars of India. Most shops carry a wide selection of cassettes and videos, along with imported Indian foods. Traditional music and dance are also performed in certain contexts.

WORK

After the period of indenture, Indo-Fijians began to specialize in certain occupations in Fiji. They grew sugar cane, which was and still is an important cash crop, controlled transportation, and also were in charge of most of the craft and retail trade. Although they held little land, the Indo-Fijian population acquired control of the Fijian economy. This situation did not please the traditional Fijian chiefs and ultimately led to the 1987 military coup. The majority of those Indo-Fijians that left following the coup were shop owners and other retail merchants and bankers.

SPORTS

Cricket is a popular spectator and participant sport among Indo-Fijians. Other sports that have large followings in Fiji, like rugby, are not as important to Indo-Fijians.

ENTERTAINMENT AND RECREATION

Traditional south Asian forms of entertainment, including classical forms of music and dance, are enjoyed and practiced within the Indo-Fijian community. Music and dance academies have also been established by the Indo-Fijians that have left Fiji and moved to Sydney, Australia.

FOLK ART, CRAFTS, AND HOBBIES

Rural folk arts accompanied those south Asians that came to Fiji as indentured laborers. Artistic specialization was caste-associated in India and few ascribed artists were present in the early society. On the plantations, there was little time for the production of painting and sculpture. Pottery production and the painting and sculpting of religious images for local consumption were minimal during the early stages of Indo-Fijian settlement history. Nowadays, religious images and other Indian products are imported directly from India.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS

Indo-Fijians still face difficulties living in Fiji. Although relations between the Indo-Fijians and Fijians have improved considerably since 1988, there is still resentment and anger on both sides. The coup adversely affected the tourist industry, which has to yet regain the ground it had prior to the coups. The exodus of Indo-Fijians resulted in loss of over one-third of the nation's doctors, one-half of its lawyers, and a great number of teachers and nurses.

GENDER ISSUES

Many occupations in Indo-Fijian society are traditionally held by males only. Musicians, religious functionaries, and cooks for public functions like weddings and pujas are typically male. There is a marked preference for male offspring since daughters incur more costs at marriage, and also leave the family at marriage to live with their husbands. Male children are also usually given much more freedom and independence than are female children. Like the societies in India from which Indo-Fijian society sprang, descent is traced through the father's line and offspring become members of the patriline.

The cultural construction of gender in Indo-Fijian society is influenced by the conceptualization of gender in Hinduism. While in Indo-Fijian society there are two recognized gender categories, male and female, in the Hindu pantheon these two categories are mixed and transformed. In Hindu myths, there are several accounts of deities who transformed genders, who are bisexual, and who are transsexual and transgendered.

The onset of menstruation marks puberty for females in Indo-Fijian society. Depending on the family and the sect of Hinduism that the family follows, rituals may follow a girl's first menstruation and a set of restrictions will be placed upon her during her menstrual periods. Many of the strict observances that were part of rural life in India have been relaxed in Indo-Fijian society. However, for rural families, the observances can still greatly restrict the movement and actions of menstruating women.

For both males and females, adulthood is symbolized by marriage. The state of marriage is characterized by increasing responsibilities to family and work. By middle age, children should be grown and married, with married sons perpetuating the father's lineage.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Donniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference: Gender and Myth in Ancient Greece and India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Lamb, S. White Saris and Sweet Mangoes: Aging, Gender, and Body in North India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Mayer, Adrian. Indians in Fiji. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.

Siegel, Jeff. Language Contact in a Plantation Environment: A Sociolinguistic History of Fiji. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

—by J. Williams

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"Indo-Fijians." Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. . Retrieved September 17, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/indo-fijians

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