Adelaide

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ADELAIDE

ADELAIDE , capital of South Australia, established in 1836. Among its first settlers were a number of Jews engaged in commerce and sheep farming. Joseph Barrow Montefiore, a cousin of Sir Moses *Montefiore, who became in 1832 the first president of the Sydney Synagogue, lived in Adelaide at the time of the founding of the synagogue there. Local Jewish life was stimulated after 1838 by Emanuel Solomon from Sydney, who organized religious services on the New Year and the Day of Atonement and in 1845 successfully applied to the government for land for a cemetery. In 1847 Eliezer Levi Montefiore sought state support for Jewish religious institutions. In 1848 there were 58 Jews living in Adelaide, and the first congregation was organized with Judah Moss Solomon as its president. J.B. Montefiore gave addresses in English during the High Holidays. The first synagogue, used also as a schoolroom, was opened in 1850 and the present one, adjoining it, in 1870, when the community numbered 435. A.T. *Boas was invited to act as minister in 1870 and served for nearly half a century. Vabian Louis *Solomon, son of Judah Moss Solomon, was premier of the colony for a brief period in 1898. The community declined considerably in numbers after World War i, but there was a subsequent increase, especially with the emigration of Jews from Egypt after the mid-1950s. Since the 1960s the Jewish population of Adelaide has numbered about 1,200, although, unlike most other Jewish communities in Australia, there has been a decline in population in recent years. In 2001, according to the Australian census, 979 persons declared themselves to be Jewish by religion. An Orthodox and a Liberal synagogue operated. There were no other organized Jewish communities in South Australia apart from Adelaide, where the South Australian Board of Deputies had its headquarters.

bibliography:

H. Munz, Jews in South Australia (1936); Saphir (trans. by Falk), in: Journal of the Australian Jewish Historical Society, 1 (1948), 192–4; Goldman, ibid., 4 (1958), 351, 376; Apple, ibid., 6 (1968), 206–7, 209–10. add. bibliography: H.L. Rubinstein, in: ja i, index, and W.D. Rubinstein, in: ja ii, index; B.K. Hyams, Surviving: A History of the Institutions and Organisations of the Adelaide Jewish Community (1998).

[Israel Porush /

William D. Rubinstein (2nd ed.)]

Adelaide

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Adelaide (1792–1849), queen of William IV. Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen was suggested by Queen Charlotte as a suitable wife for her son William Henry, then duke of Clarence, hoping that he would end his relationship with Mrs Jordan, actress and mother of his ten children. Marrying in July 1818, Adelaide's reserved personality complemented William's exuberant nature and, despite their differences, the marriage proved happy. The death of two infant daughters clouded Adelaide's life. But following William's accession in 1830, she performed her royal duties with dedication. Initial unpopularity sparked by a belief that she meddled in politics gave way to respect for her charitable works. Her health deteriorated after William's death in 1837 and she died twelve years later.

Sue Minna Cannon

Adelaide

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Adelaide State capital of South Australia, located at the mouth of the River Torrens on the Gulf of St Vincent. Founded in 1836 by Colonel William Light and named after the wife of William IV, Adelaide is noted for its fine cathedrals, large parks, and cultural festivals. It is home to the largest fresh produce market in the Southern Hemisphere. Exports: wool, wheat. Industries: food and wine manufacture, motor vehicle assembly, pharmaceutical products, aerospace. Pop. (1999) 1,092,900.

Adelaide

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Adelaide. Song for high v. and pf. by Beethoven, Op.46, comp. 1795/6 to poem by F. von Matthisson.

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Adelaide (city)

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