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Peshawar City in nw Pakistan, 16km (9mi) e of the Khyber Pass. An ancient settlement, it has always had great strategic importance. Brought under Muslim rule in the 10th century, it fell to the Afghans in the 16th century. Conquered by the Sikhs in 1834, it was annexed by Britain in 1849. In 1948, it became part of Pakistan. In the 1980s and 1990s, it was a base for rebel groups operating in Afghanistan. The city is famous for its handicrafts, carpets, and leather goods. Pop. (1998) 988,055.