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Minto, Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl

Minto, Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl (1845–1914). Minto was educated at Eton and Cambridge and joined the Scots Guards in 1867. He was famous for riding racehorses until he broke his neck in the 1876 Grand National. Thereafter, he became a newspaper correspondent in Spain, Turkey, and Canada and observer of the wars in Afghanistan and Egypt. A Liberal, he was appointed governor-general of Canada 1898–1904, and in 1905 became viceroy of India. His period in office was principally distinguished by his work with Secretary of State John Morley to pass constitutional reforms which introduced (albeit in a very restricted form) the principles of elected representation to the government of India. However, his relations with Morley were strained by his conservatism, which included reintroducing deportation without trial for nationalist ‘agitators’. The Morley–Minto reforms are also remembered for introducing separate Hindu and Muslim ‘communal’ electorates. He retired in 1910.

David Anthony Washbrook

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Cairnes, John Elliot

John Elliot Cairnes (kârnz), 1823–75, Irish economist, a follower of John Stuart Mill. His Slave Power (1862), a defense of the North in the American Civil War, made a great impression in England. He has written about noncompeting groups in the labor market and is known for his distrust of mathematical economics. Among his works are The Character and Logical Method of Political Economy (1857) and Some Leading Principles of Political Economy Newly Expounded (1874).

See A. Weinberg, John Elliot Cairnes and the American Civil War (1970).

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