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ḥūr

Ḥūr, pl. ḥawrāʾ (Arab., ‘white ones’). The beautiful maidens of paradise, who are described in the Qurʾān e.g. 2. 25, 3. 15, 4. 57, 55. 56 ff. They are often transliterated as ‘houris’. Not all commentators (e.g. al-Baiḍāwī) take the passages literally, and the Sūfīs spiritualize the huris.

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Hur

Hur, in the Bible. 1 One who upheld a hand of Moses at Rephidim. 2 Grandfather of Bezaleel1, perhaps the same as 1.3 Midianite king killed by the Hebrews. 4 Father of an officer of Solomon. 5 Father of Rephaiah4.

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Hur

HUR

HUR (Heb. חוּר).

(1) Grandfather of the master craftsman *Bezalel of the tribe of Judah (Ex. 31:2; 35:30; i Chron. 2:20, 50; ii Chron. 1:5); son of *Caleb and Ephrath (i Chron. 2:19). Another tradition seems to make him the son of Carmi, and describes him as "the first-born of Ephrath, the father of Beth-Lehem" (i Chron. 4:1, 4). He is probably identical with the Hur who, together with Aaron, assisted Moses both at the battle against *Amalek (Ex. 17:10, 12) and at the covenant at Sinai, when he was placed in charge of judicial matters during Moses' absence on the mount (Ex. 24:14). Josephus lists him as the husband of Miriam, Moses' sister (Ant. 3:54; cf. 3:105). The name is probably connected with the Egyptian god Horus.

[Nahum M. Sarna /

S. David Sperling (2nd ed.)]

In the Aggadah

The Midrash, identifying Ephrath in i Chronicles 2:19 with Miriam, makes Hur the son of Caleb and Miriam. The mysterious disappearance of Hur from the biblical record after he seemed obviously to be groomed as Moses' successor (cf. Ex. 24:14) is explained by the rabbis to the effect that he was murdered by the people for courageously opposing their demand to make the golden calf (Ex. R. 48:3, Sanh. 7a). As a reward he became the ancestor both of Bezalel, the architect of the sanctuary (cf. Ex. 31:2), and of Solomon, builder of the Temple (Tanḥ. B., Ex. 121, and Sot. 11b). He ranks among the martyred prophets of Israel (Mid. Ag. to Num. 30:15) and the seven righteous men in the world (Targum Sheni to Esth. 1:2).

(2) One of the five kings of Midian slain by the Israelites in the time of Moses (Num. 31:8; Josh. 13:21).

bibliography:

Ginzberg, Legends, 3 (1911), 121ff., 154f. add. bibliography: E.A. Knauf, in: abd, 3:334.

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