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Johann Reuchlin

Johann Reuchlin

The German humanist and jurist Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522) was one of the greatest Hebraists of early modern Europe. He was involved in a great controversy concerning Hebrew literature that culminated in the famous "Letters of Obscure Men."

Johann Reuchlin was born at Pforzheim. He studied at Freiburg, Paris, Basel, and Rome; became a doctor of law; and began an impressive career as a public official and jurist. Reuchlin's studies in Italy had acquainted him with humanism, and his command of Greek and Latin was as accomplished as that of any scholar north of the Alps. A second journey to Italy, in 1492, caused Reuchlin to become interested in Hebrew, which he then studied intensely and described in a short book in 1494. Reuchlin soon became the most accomplished Gentile Hebraist of the Renaissance, and in 1506 he produced a grammar of Hebrew entitled Rudimenta Hebraica. His linguistic studies led Reuchlin to a genuine interest in Judaism and also into one of the most famous controversies in the history of anti-Semitism.

In 1506 a converted Jew named Johann Pfefferkorn began to produce a series of pamphlets in which he condemned Jewish "errors," ritual, and learning. He urged the forcible conversion of all Jews and obtained imperial permission to confiscate Jewish books. In 1509-1510 Pfefferkorn became more powerful, and Reuchlin's remarks in 1510 that Jewish books should not be burned but, indeed, chairs of Hebrew should be established in German universities made him a target not only of Pfefferkorn but also of the Dominican order at Cologne. In 1511, 1512, and 1513 Reuchlin issued pamphlets defending his own position and the value to Christian scholars of Hebrew literature. Although Reuchlin by no means believed that Jewish literature did not contain errors dangerous to Christians, his spirited defense of Hebrew and of the Jews remains one of the earliest modern Christian attacks on anti-Semitism. In 1514 Reuchlin was acquitted of charges of heresy by the bishop of Speyer, but his enemies then managed to transfer the case to Rome.

In 1514 Reuchlin issued a collection of letters in his defense written by the greatest humanistic scholars in Europe, the Letters of Eminent Men. In 1515 another collection of letters, the Epistolae obscurorum virorum (Letters of Obscure Men), appeared. Ostensibly serious letters from monks supporting the persecution of Reuchlin, the collection was in fact a withering satire on Reuchlin's opponents. The Letters of Obscure Men caused a furor: it was a superb example of humanist scorn not only of bigotry and stupidity but also of the ecclesiastical circles in which these traits dominated. Both Sir Thomas More and Erasmus applauded this work, written by Crotus Rubianus and Ulrich von Hutten.

Reuchlin's enemies, however, attacked him with even greater savagery, finally securing a papal condemnation of his position in 1520. Reuchlin was severely hurt by the final condemnation. He spent the last few years of his life teaching and lecturing, honored by some of his contemporaries for his courage and learning and viciously condemned by others for his persistent defense of Hebrew literature and the Jews.

Further Reading

Reuchlin's life and work are discussed in the historical introduction to Francis G. Stokes, trans. and ed., Epistolae obscurorum virorum (1909), and in Lewis W. Spitz, The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists (1963). Particular aspects of Reuchlin's work are discussed in S. A. Hirsch, A Book of Essays (1905), and Joseph Leon Blau, The Christian Interpretation of the Cabala in the Renaissance (1944). □

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Reuchlin, Johann

Johann Reuchlin (yō´hän roikh´lən), 1455–1522, German humanist and lawyer, a scholar of Greek and Hebrew, b. Baden. He taught jurisprudence at Tübingen. In 1492 he began the study of Hebrew, and his Rudimenta Hebraica (1506) was the first Hebrew grammar written by a Christian. His reputation as a scholar had already been established by the translations from the Greek that he made at Heidelberg. When Johann Pfefferkorn, a Jew who had converted to Christianity, advocated destruction of all Hebrew books, Emperor Maximilian requested Reuchlin's opinion in the matter. Reuchlin suggested that only those Hebrew books which calumniated Christianity should be suppressed and that the Jews should be required to furnish books for the universities, with two chairs of Hebrew learning to be set up in every university in Germany. His decision brought forth a storm of opposition from bigots and obscurantists, which Reuchlin met by his Augenspiegel [mirror of the eye] (1511). In this work he attacked Pfefferkorn and drew a distinction between classical works in Hebrew and anti-Christian polemics. A violent controversy developed between the humanists supporting Reuchlin and the clericals and powers of the Inquisition supporting Pfefferkorn. From the struggle emerged the famous defense of Reuchlin, Episculae obscurorum virorum [letters of obscure men] by Crotus Rubianus and Ulrich von Hutten. Reuchlin, himself, remained a Roman Catholic. In 1521 the Curia suppressed his writings against Pfefferkorn.

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Reuchlin, Johannes

Reuchlin, Johannes (1455–1522). Gentile defender of Jewish scholarship. Reuchlin's De Rudimentis Hebraicis (1506) was a pioneering attempt at an understanding of Judaism by a Christian scholar. He also studied the kabbalah, and his De Arte Cabalistica (1517), which was dedicated to the pope, did much to spread knowledge of Jewish mysticism to Christian readers.

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Reuchlin, Johann

REUCHLIN, JOHANN

German humanist, Hebrew scholar; b. Pforzheim, Feb. 22, 1455; d. Bad Liebenzell, Germany, June 30, 1522. He studied liberal arts at Freiburg im Breisgau, Paris (beginning Greek there), and Basel, and then law at Orléans and Poitiers (licentiate, 1481). Next he accompanied Duke Eberhard of Württemberg to Italy, where he met Marsilio ficino. He received a Doctor of Laws degree from Tübingen and remained in the service of Duke Eberhard. In 1490 he made a second Italian trip, meeting pico della mirandola. On a mission to the imperial court at Linz (1492), he continued his study of Hebrew. The accession of an unfriendly duke drove Reuchlin to Heidelberg (1496), where he associated with humanists such as Jakob Wimpfeling. In 1498 he made his third Italian trip. He next became judge of the Swabian League (150213). Later he held professorships at Ingolstadt (152021) and Tübingen (152122). Despite his busy public career, Reuchlin was always the humanist. In 1475 he published a Latin dictionary, and later he made translations from Greek. At Heidelberg he wrote two Latin comedies, Henno and Sergius. He was seeking to recover ancient wisdom, but in his view all true wisdom stemmed ultimately from the Hebrew revelation. Hence he was one of the first to attempt mastery of Hebrew. He not only succeeded in learning it, but also produced the books that firmly established Hebrew studies in Germany: De rudimentis hebraicis (1506) and De accentibus et orthographia linguae hebraicae (1518). He was seeking ancient wisdom and thought he had found it in Jewish ca bala, which inspired his De verbo mirifico (1494) and De arte cabalistica (1517). These two works, though tending toward a potentially dangerous syncretism, aimed to demonstrate the truth of Christianity with the aid of Cabala. The most famous episode in Reuchlin's life was his controversy with the converted Jew Johannes pfefferkorn and the Dominicans of Cologne. Pfefferkorn had urged the destruction of all Hebrew books. Consulted by the emperor, Reuchlin argued (1510) that such a measure would be both unjust and disastrous for Christian scholarship. Pfefferkorn denounced him in Handspiegel, and Reuchlin replied bitterly in Augenspiegel (1511). The issue broadened when the inquisitor Jacob van Hoogstraten, OP, tried to convict Reuchlin of heresy. In 1516 Pope Leo X suspended the case and enjoined silence. After the Reformation had created a new mood, Leo issued a mandate (June 20, 1520) condemning the Augenspiegel. Long before this, however, the case became the symbol of a bitter struggle between conservative scholastic theologians and defenders of the new humanistic studies. Reuchlin called the humanists to his support (see humanism, christian). The result was a flood of pamphlets, of which the most famous was the savage satire epistolae obscurorum virorum. Despite his difficulties with the theologians, Reuchlin was consistently obedient to Rome and cool toward Luther and toward his own nephew melanchthon.

Bibliography: j. reuchlin, Briefwechsel, ed. l. geiger (Tübingen 1875). l. geiger, Johann Reuchlin: Sein Leben und seine Werke (Leipzig 1871). l. w. spitz, The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists (Cambridge, Mass. 1963) 6180. m. krebs, ed., Johannes R., 14551522: Festgabe seiner Vaterstadt Pforzheim zur 500. Wiederkehr seines Geburtstages (Pforzheim 1955).

[c. g. nauert, jr.]

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