Lennon, John

views updated May 14 2018

John Lennon

Singer, songwriter, guitarist


End of the Beatles

Politics and Conceptual Art

Five-Year Musical Hiatus

Selected writings

Selected discography


John Lennon was born as German born bs fell on Liverpool during the Battle of Britaina time many considered Britains finest hour until Lennon and the Beatles provided a finer one twenty-odd years later. He grew up in austere, depressed, postwar England. His father abandoned the family when John was a baby, and his mother never could bring herself to settle down to parenthood, leaving her son to be raised by his aunt, Mimi Smith, in a respectable, lower-middle class milieu in which he never really fit.

Lennon was a mediocre student, but his obvious intelligence and artistic talent enabled him to move through the rigidly stratified British school system in spite of poor grades. He went to high school and on to Liverpool Art College, but from the mid-fifties on, his attention was increasingly focused on music. In 1955, inspired by the popularity of skifflea sort of speeded up jug-band blues soundLennon persuaded his aunt to buy him a guitar. In the spring of 1957 he and some other students at Quarry Bank High School formed the Quarry Men; at one of their first performances, on July 6, he met Paul McCartney and invited him to join the group. George Harrison joined in February of 1958.

The Quarry Mens style began to move from skiffle to rock and roll; they graduated from playing youth club dances and church halls to pubs, nightclubs, and dance halls. Along the way they acquired amplifiers, a bass player, and a series of drummers. By the time they were booked into the Kaiserkeller Club in Hamburg, Germany, they were experienced, if not quite seasoned, musicians. Their two stints in Hamburg, in 1960 and 1962, made them professionals, though the crude recordings made at the Star Club in 1962 give little hint of the impact they were to have in only a few months.


In 1964 Lennon and the Beatles came out of the fin sticks to take over the world, as Lennon told Rolling Stone publisher Jann Wenner seven years later. They had taken over England the year before, exploding out of provincial, industrial Liverpool into a British pop music scene dominated by American rock and roll and jazz, and by feeble home-grown imitations. Almost overnight the Beatles energy and originality made them the biggest stars in the history of British popular music. Skeptical Americans who doubted that foreigners could play such a distinctly American music as rock were won over almost as quickly.

The Beatles went on to revolutionize rock music several times over. The Beatles are a pivotal part of rocks

For the Record

Born John Winston Lennon, October 9, 1940, in Liverpool, England; died of gunshot wounds December 8, 1980, in New York City; son of Alfred (a merchant seaman) and Julia (Stanley) Lennon; married Cynthia Powell, August 23, 1962 (divorced, 1968); married Yoko Ono (an artist and singer), March 20, 1969; children: (first marriage) John Charles Julian, (second marriage) Sean Ono Taro. Education: Attended Liverpool College of Art, 1957-60.

Learned to play guitar, 1955; formed group the Quarry Men, 1957; group performed as Johnny and the Moondogs, the Moonshiners, the Rainbows, the Nurk Twins, and Long John and the Silver Beetles; groups name changed to the Beatles, 1960; performed in Liverpool area, northern England, Scotland, and Hamburg, Germany, 1960-62; group signed with EMI/Parlophone records and recorded first single, Love Me Do, 1962; recorded more than a dozen albums and numerous singles and EPs, 1962-70; toured Europe, America, and Asia, 1963-66; appeared in films A Hard Days Night, 1964, Help, 1965, Yellow Submarine, 1968, and Let It Be, 1970; group disbanded, 1970.

With Yoko Ono, released Two Virgins, Apple, 1968; with Ono and others, recorded several albums, 1968-80, and made occasional concert appearances. Author of books including In His Own Write, 1964, and A Spaniard in the Works, 1965. Graphic artist, works exhibited in Great Britain and the U.S.

Selected awards: With the Beatles, numerous Grammy awards and platinum albums; gold album for Imagine, 1971.

story, wrote Tim Riley in Tell Me Why, not just because their music can still dazzle but because their arrival as rock n rollers with an endless stream of original material challenged what anyone had imagined pop could become.... They may not be responsible for everything, but nearly everything that comes after would be impossible without them. As Griel Marcus wrote in The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock and Roll, What you heard was a rock and roll group that combined elements of the music that you were used to hearing only in pieces. The Beatles combined the harmonic range and implicit equality of the Fifties vocal group, the flash of a rockabilly band, the aggressive and unique personalities of the classic rock stars, the homey this-could-be-you manner of later rock stars, [and] endlessly inventive songwriting. The result was that elusive rock treasure, a new sound and a new sound that could not be exhausted in the course of one brief flurry on the charts.

Perhaps more significant than the Beatles sound was the way in which they made the recording studio their instrument and the long-playing record their medium. Though some producers, notably Phil Spector, had expanded the concept of recording beyond merely the capturing of a live performance, the Beatles were the first artists to make records the focus of their work. The Beatles are our first recording artists, and they remain our best, Riley wrote. The Beatles work came to be conceived with the studio in mindall the production values a mixing board had to offer were used to serve the ideas conveyed in their music. A Beatles record is more than just a collection of songs: its a performance for tape. As time went on, the Beatles werent so much songwriters as they were record writers; the studio became a lab where musical ideas were exchanged, reworked, and restructured for tape.

The core of the Beatles brilliance was the musical relationship between Lennon and McCartney, a relationship that was as complex as the music it spawned. McCartney had begun writing songs before he met Lennon, and inspired Lennon to try his hand at it. They sometimes wrote songs together (Hunter Davies, in his biography of the Beatles, describes them sitting down at a piano to write With a Little Help From My Friends) but seem at least as often to have served as each others editors, helping to fix or finish a song that the other was having a problem with. McCartney wrote the verses of We Can Work It Out, and Lennon contributed the bridge; Lennon wrote most of Ticket to Ride, but McCartney came up with the off-center drum pattern that anchors the rhythm. After the Beatles broke up, Lennon played down the importance of their teamwork, but in his final interview with Playboy he acknowledged, I said that, but I was lying. We wrote a lot of stuff together, one on one, eyeball to eyeball. In those days we absolutely used to write like thatboth playing into each others noses.

That was particularly true in the early days, from the time they first went into Abbey Road studios in London in 1962insisting to skeptical producer George Martin that they wanted to record their own songsuntil the Beatles stopped touring in 1966. By that time, Lennon told Playboy the creativity of songwriting had left Paul and me well, by the mid-Sixties it had become a craft Their personal relationship had become strained as well. According to Ray Coleman in Lennon, the tension began to build with the death of their manager, Brian Epstein, in 1967. Lennon was deeply into drugs, unhappy in his marriage, and bored with being a Beatle. McCartney took over the direction of the band, leading them into the ill-conceived and chaotically executed film project Magical Mystery Tour and taking the dominant role in most of their recordings.

Lennon reacted by withdrawing further from the Beatles and focusing on his relationship with artist Yoko Ono. He brought her to the 1968 sessions for The Beatles, the so-called White Album, breaking what Coleman called a rigid, unwritten rule of the group: that their women would never be allowed in the studios. The other band members resented her presence and treated her coolly, alienating Lennon further. The resulting album, with its fragmented sound, heralded the disintegration of the Beatles into four individualistic musicians rather than a band.

The release of The Beatles was followed a week later by the release of Two Virgins, an album of avant-garde music Lennon and Ono had recorded in his home studio. The cover photo, which showed the couple nude, was banned in some countries and sold in brown paper wrappers in the United States. The music, an aural collage of electronic sounds, attracted much less attention. The Lennon-Ono relationship had become public. Lennons divorce was in progress, and Ono suffered a miscarriage in November of 1968. They had also been arrested for possession of drugs, a hazard from which the Beatles had been considered exempt in spite of their public admission that they had used marijuana and LSD.

End of the Beatles

The Beatles musical estrangement deepened and was documented in the movie Let It Be, filmed in 1969 as they worked on what was to be their last album. Their financial affairs were also in disarray: their company, Apple Corps, Ltd., was losing money rapidly, and Lennon said in an interview with Coleman in January of 1969 that if it carries on like this all of us will be broke in the next six months. It was the business crisis that brought things to a head: Lennon invited Allen Klein, an American promoter, to take over as the Beatles manager, but McCartney refused to sign a contract with Klein. Late in 1969 Lennon informed the others that he no longer considered himself a Beatle, but was persuaded not to make a public announcement until the groups financial position was stabilized. The breakup became public when McCartney released his first solo album in the spring of 1970.

Lennon had already moved on, forming the Plastic Ono Band with Yoko in 1969, releasing three singles, Give Peace a Chance, Cold Turkey, and Instant Karma, and performing at the Toronto Peace Festival in September of 1969. He released his first real solo album, Plastic Ono Band, in 1970. The record, made in the wake of his primal scream therapy with psychiatrist Arthur Janov, was as much a therapeutic as a musical exercise. Riley, in Tell Me Why, wrote: These confessional songs seek out the idealized state of childhood, the pain of individuation, the fragility of fantasies and the very real power of illusions. The soul-baring leanness of the sound embodies the crux of what rock n roll is all about: a restlessness with the status quo, a hopeful dissatisfaction, and a gnawing sense of encumbrance that finds release as it expresses itself.

Lennons next album, Imagine, was much more successful commercially, and the title song became the most popular song of Lennons solo career. Ben Gerson of Rolling Stone, who considered Plastic Ono Band a masterpiece, found Imagine a disappointing follow-up, faulting it for its sloppiness and self-absorption. He wrote that Plastic Ono Band, in its singing and instrumental work, was as much a triumph of artifice as of art. It managed to sound both spontaneous and careful, while Imagine is less of each. Even though it contains a substantial portion of good music, on the heels of [Plastic Ono Band] it only serves to reinforce the questioning of what Johns relationship to rock really is.

Politics and Conceptual Art

Lennon was questioning that relationship, too. Freed from the confines of the Beatles wholesome imagesomething he had resented and struggled against ever since Brian Epstein took the band out of black leather and put them in suitshe began branching out into other activities. Inspired by Onos conceptual art, he made several avant-garde films and exhibited a series of erotic lithographs entitled Bag One. He also began to speak out about politics, which had been another Beatle taboo. He had started to cross that line earlier with the song Give Peace a Chance and by returning the medal he had received when the Beatles were made members of the Order of the British Empire, partly as a protest against British support of Americas war in Vietnam. He became especially outspoken after moving to New York City in 1971 and falling in with a group of prominent American radicals.

The radicals wanted Lennon to join the protests at the 1972 Republican Convention in San Diego. Lennon, who suspected they were trying to provoke a riot similar to the one at the Democratic Convention in Chicago in 1968, never intended to go. Nevertheless, rumors began to spread, and they were believed by some officials of the Nixon administration, who began a campaign to have Lennon deported as a convicted drug user. The FBI shadowed him, tapped his phone, and filled thousands of pages of files with notes on his musical and other activities. The case was finally settled in 1975 when a court declared that Lennons British marijuana conviction was not grounds for deportation under U.S. law.

While Lennon was still under the influence of, as he wrote in Skywriting by Word of Mouth, male-macho serious revolutionaries and their insane ideas about killing people to save them from capitalism, he recorded a politically didactic single, Power to the Peoplewhich he recalled as rather embarrassingand another album with Ono, Some Time in New York City. Rolling Stones Stephen Holden called the record incipient artistic suicide, while acknowledging that John sings better than ever. Holden observed: Some Time in New York City is entirely devoted to propaganda. But as propaganda it is so embarrassingly puerile as to constitute an advertisement against itself. The tunes are shallow and derivative and the words little more than sloppy nursery rhymes that patronize the issues and individuals they seek to exalt.

In 1973 Lennon and Ono separated, she staying in New York and he going to Los Angeles on what he later described to Playboy as a lost weekend that lasted eighteen months. Drinking heavily, Lennon was thrown out of nightclubs and was a staple of gossip columns for much of that time. He also released three albums. The first two, Mind Games and Walls and Bridges, turned away from politics, back toward the musical territory of Imagine. While neither was particularly well received by critics, Walls and Bridges did bring Lennon his first American Number One hit, the single Whatever Gets You Through the Night.

For his next recordwhich was to be his last for five yearshe turned to legendary producer Phil Spector to make an album of old rock and roll songs. This was in part a legal obligation, part of an out-of-court settlement with Chuck Berrys publisher who claimed that Lennon had lifted the line Here come old flattop in Come Together from Berrys You Cant Catch Me. To avoid a lawsuit, Lennon had agreed to record several Berry tunes, and he decided to fill out the album with other fifties classics. The sessions did not go well: Spectors eccentric, paranoid behavior, combined with Lennons drinking, made the sessions prolonged, expensive, and unproductive. Finally Spector took the tapes and withdrew to his walled house with its armed guards and attack dogs and refused to give the recordings to Lennon. It took months to recover the tapes, and when Spector finally did relinquish them they turned out to be all but unusable. Eventually Lennon went into a New York studio to record ten songs in a week to complete the album. Rock nRollwas released early in 1975 to lukewarm reviews and unimpressive sales, though a few critics, including Steve Simeis of Stereo Review, considered it among his best work.

Five-Year Musical Hiatus

At about the same time Lennon and Ono were reconciled, and the Beatles were finally dissolved as a legal entity. Chet Flippo recalled in The Ballad of John and Yoko that Lennon later remarked to him that it was the first time in thirteen years that he had not been under written contract to at least someone . It was his desire now to exert that freedom by quitting rock & roll. Quit he did, resisting calls for a Beatles reunion from fans and promoters; he always insisted that he had no regrets about the breakup of the band and no desire to look back, and he believed that his solo work was as good as, if not better than, anything the Beatles had done. He retired to his apartment in the Dakota building on Central Park West to raise his new son, Sean, and dabble in house-husbandry. Im a housewife who also has a nanny and an assistant and a cook and a cleaner, he told Playboy. I wasnt a poor strugglin housewife who had to cook three meals a day. [But] it wasnt a lark. The serious intent was to orchestrate what went into the babys mind and body for at least five years.

Lennons sabbatical came to an end in 1980 when, on a trip to Bermuda, he heard the music of the B-52s. It sounds just like Yokos music, he told Jonathan Cott of Rolling Stone, so I said to meself, Its time to get out the old axe and wake the wife up! Lennon and Ono wrote 25 songs in the next few weeks, and were soon in the studio recording. The resulting album, Double Fantasy, was different from their previous collaborations: it was their first album of pop songs on which they received equal billing, alternating writing credits and lead vocals throughout. Subtitled A Heart Play, it presented, as Rolling Stones Holden wrote, the Lennons marriage as an exemplary pop fairy tale.

Double Fantasy received mixed reviews, with some critics expressing disappointment that the pop music trends of the late seventies seemed to have passed Lennon by. As Steve Simeis of Stereo Review noted, much of the music on Lennons comeback album was nearer to what the industry calls Adult Contemporary than to the cutting edge of rock. Nevertheless, the single Starting Over went quickly to number one, and Lennon and Ono continued to spend many hours in the studio working on their next record.

Upon returning home from a recording session on December 8, 1980, Lennon was shot five times by a self-described fan, Mark Chapman, for whom he had signed an autograph earlier that day. He was dead on arrival at Roosevelt Hospital. Crowds gathered outside the Dakota as soon as the news broke, and many remained there for days, singing Give Peace a Chance, Imagine, and other Lennon songs.

Ken Tucker wrote in Rock of Ages: Lennons death was a crucial event in rock culture. [It] was the ultimate example of the eras fragmentation. All the media pundits repeated the same phrasethe dream is overand it was: Rock fans were forever separated from the myth of the Beatles. There was nothing left but to face the future. Lester Bangs, writing in the Los Angeles Times, noted that much of the grief was at odds with Lennons own attitude toward the past: John Lennon at his best despised cheap sentiment and had to learn the hard way that once youve made your mark on history those who cant will be so grateful theyll turn it into a cage for you.... The Beatles were most of all a moment.... It is for that momentnot for John Lennon the manthat you are mourning.

Stereo Reviews Simels summed up that moment: John Lennon was the coolest guy in the universe. Cooler than Elvis (dumb greaser!), cooler than Brando or James Dean or Lord Byron or Willie Sutton or Muhammad Ali or Cary Grant or Robert de Niro or Bruce Springsteen. Cooler than Elvis Costello even. He had wit, style, and songwriting genius. He invented the worlds most exclusive mens club and made millions of dollars thumbing his nose at the Establishment. He gave countless people joy and in the process changed the world a couple of times. His finest work constitutes an achievement as personal and innovative and moving as can be found in the history of the music he helped shape.

Selected writings

In His Own Write, Simon & Schuster, 1964.

A Spaniard in the Works, Simon & Schuster, 1965.

John Lennons Erotic Lithographs, edited by Ralph Ginzburg, Avant-Garde Media, 1970.

The Writings of John Lennon, Simon & Schuster, 1981.

Skywriting by Word of Mouth, Harper & Row, 1986.

Selected discography

With the Beatles

Please Please Me, Parlophone, 1963.

With the Beatles, Parlophone, 1963.

A Hard Days Night, Parlophone, 1964.

Beatles for Sale, Parlophone, 1964.

Help!, Parlophone, 1965.

Rubber Soul, Parlophone, 1965.

Yesterday and Today, Capitol, 1966.

Revolver, Parlophone, 1966.

Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band, Parlophone, 1967.

Magical Mystery Tour, Capitol, 1967.

The Beatles, Apple, 1968.

Yellow Submarine, Apple, 1969.

Abbey Road, Apple, 1969.

Let It Be, Apple, 1970.

Hey Jude, Apple, 1970.

The BeatlesCirca 1960In the Beginning, Polydor, 1970.

The Beatles 1962-1966, Apple, 1973.

The Beatles 1967-1970, Apple, 1973.

Rock n Roll Music, Capitol, 1976.

The Beatles at the Hollywood Bowl, Capitol, 1977.

The Beatles Live! At the Star Club in Hamburg, Germany: 1962, Lingasong, 1977.

Love Songs, Capitol, 1977.

Rarities, Capitol, 1979.

Dawn of the Silver Beatles, PAC, 1981.

Reel Music, Capitol, 1982.

Twenty Greatest Hits, Capitol, 1982.

Past Masters Volume One, Parlophone, 1988.

Past Masters Volume Two, Parlophone, 1988.

With Yoko Ono

Unfinished Music No. 1: Two Virgins, Apple, 1968.

Unfinished Music No. 2: Life With the Lions, Apple, 1969.

Wedding Album, Apple, 1969.

Some Time in New York City, Apple, 1972.

Double Fantasy, Geffen, 1980.

Milk and Honey, Polydor, 1984.

With the Plastic Ono Band

The Plastic Ono BandLive Peace in Toronto, Apple, 1969.

Plastic Ono Band, Apple, 1970.

Solo releases

Imagine, Apple, 1971.

Mind Games, Apple, 1973.

Walls and Bridges, Apple, 1974.

Rock nRoll, Apple, 1975.

Shaved Fish, Apple, 1975.

The John Lennon Collection, Geffen, 1982.

Reflections and Poetry, Silhouette, 1984.

Menlove Avenue, Capitol, 1986.

John Lennon: Live in New York City, Capitol, 1986.

Imagine John Lennon: Music From the Original Motion Picture, Capitol, 1988.

Lennon, Capitol, 1990.



The Ballad of John and Yoko, edited by Jonathan Cott and Christine Doudna, Rolling Stone Press, 1982.

Bangs, Lester, Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung, Vintage Books, 1988.

Castleman, Harry, and Walter J. Podrazik, All Together Now: The First Complete Beatles Discography, Ballantine, 1975.

Coleman, Ray, Lennon: The Definitive Biography, McGraw-Hill, 1984, revised, Harperperennial, 1993.

Davies, Hunter, The Beatles: The Authorized Biography, McGraw-Hill, 1968.

Goldman, Albert, The Lives of John Lennon, Morrow, 1988.

Lennon, John, Skywriting by Word of Mouth, Harper & Row, 1986.

Lewisohn, Mark, The Beatles: Recording Sessions, Harmony Books, 1988.

Martin, George, All You Need Is Ears, St. Martins, 1979.

Reinhart, Charles, You Cant Do That: Beatles Bootlegs and Novelty Records, Contemporary Books, 1981.

Riley, Tim, Tell Me Why, Knopf, 1989.

The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock nRoll, edited by Jim Miller, Rolling Stone Press, 1986.

Sheff, David, and G. Barry Golson, The Playboy Interviews With John Lennon and Yoko Ono, Berkley Books, 1981.

Wenner, Jann, Lennon Remembers, Popular Library, 1982.

Wiener, Allen J., The Beatles: A Recording History, McFarland, 1986.

Wiener, Jon, Come Together: John Lennon and His Time, Random House, 1984.

Ward, Ed, Geoffrey Stokes, and Ken Tucker, Rock of Ages: The Rolling Stone History of Rock & Roll, Rolling Stone Press, 1986.


Los Angeles Times, December 11, 1980.

Rolling Stone, October 28, 1971 ; July 20, 1972.

Stereo Review, March 1981.

Tim Connor

Lennon, John

views updated May 23 2018

Lennon, John

Lennon, John, the first Beatle to perform and record outside the group while it was still nominally intact; b. Woolton, Liverpool, England, Oct. 9, 1940; d. N.Y, Dec. 8, 1980. John Lennon was certainly the most charismatic, controversial, and unorthodox of the group’s members. After leaving the Beatles Lennon often worked with his new wife, Yoko Ono (b. Tokyo, Japan, Feb. 18, 1933), a performance artist in her own right. The duo often recorded together, or released parallel albums that would comment on each other’s work. Lennon retired from active music-making in 1975 to become a househusband to his son, Sean (b. N.Y.C., Oct. 9, 1975); he and Ono were just returning to active recording when he was assassinated in December 1980. Son Julian Lennon (b. Liverpool, England, April 8, 1963), from his first marriage, enjoyed brief success as a recording artist in 1985; son Sean Ono Lennon has recently emerged as Yoko Ono’s newest collaborator.

During 1966, while the Beatles were still intact, John Lennon met Japanese avant-garde artist Yoko Ono, when she had a solo art show in London. In 1968 the couple recorded Two Virgins, an album of tape collages that they assembled at Lennon’s home; the cover featured a photo of the nude couple, which sparked consternation among record retailers. In 1969 they recorded Life with the Lions (for the short-lived Zapple label) and, following their March 20 wedding, Wedding Album. After the wedding, John and Yoko continued their controversial ways with their bed-in for peace in Amsterdam. “Give Peace a Chance,” recorded with the loosely aggregated Plastic Ono Band in a Montreal hotel suite, became a major hit in July and was soon adopted by the antiwar movement as one of its anthems. That September Lennon, Ono, and the Plastic Ono Band—Eric Clapton (gtr.), Klaus Voorman (bs.), and Alan White (drm.)—played a rock festival in Toronto, producing a live album and a moderate hit with the ominous “Cold Turkey.”

In February 1970 “Instant Karma (We All Shine On),” recorded with George Harrison and Billy Preston under producer Phil Spector, became a smash hit for John Lennon. He and Yoko later underwent primal-scream therapy under radical psychologist Dr. Arthur Janov that produced, at least in part, the intense, raw emotionalism of John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band. The album included such highly personal songs as “Mother” and “Isolation,” as well as the litany “God” and the caustic sociopolitical song “Working Class Hero,” banned by some radio stations for its use of obscenity. In the meantime, Yoko Ono recorded the album Plastic Ono Band. She recorded three more albums for Apple in the early 1970s, plus 1974’s unreleased A Story, which eventually surfaced on 1992’s Onobox.

Moving to N.Y, John and Yoko achieved a major hit with “Power to the People” in spring 1971. Lennon next recorded the relatively gentle and accessible Imagine album, essentially his first solo album. An instant bestseller, the album yielded a smash hit with the idealistic title song and contained the poignant “Jealous Guy,” the satirical “Crippled Inside,” and the vitriolic attack on Paul McCartney, “How Do You Sleep.” At Christmastime John and Yoko scored a smash hit with “Happy Xmas (War Is Over),” recorded with the Plastic Ono Band and the Harlem Community Choir.

Subsequently embroiled in legal proceedings by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, which sought to deport him (ultimately resolved in Lennon’s favor in 1976), John Lennon, Yoko Ono, and the Plastic Ono Band recorded a double-record set, Sometime in New York City, with the N.Y.—based band Elephant’s Memory. The politically charged album—featuring songs concerning the Attica Prison riots and Northern Ireland—and the profeminist anthem “Woman Is the Nigger of the World” (a minor hit) were critically attacked and sold modestly at best. Between August 1973 and January 1975 Lennon and Ono were estranged, and Lennon was better known for his drunken escapades in Los Angeles than for his recorded works. His Mind Games album was not well-received critically but nonetheless became a best-seller, yielding a major hit with the title song. The follow-up, Walls and Bridges, fared better, producing the top hit “Whatever Gets You Through the Night” and the near-smash “#9 Dream.” Lennon next recorded an album of remakes of early rock hits, Rock ’n’ Roll, such as “Stand By Me” and “Peggy Sue,” again working with producer Phil Spector. It was followed by the anthology set Shaved Fish. John Lennon and Yoko Ono subsequently reunited and retired from the music business, as Lennon served as househusband to his wife and newborn son Sean. Ono managed their business affairs.

During 1980 John Lennon began writing again, returning to the studio in August with Yoko Ono and a group of hand-picked session players to record Double Fantasy. Comprised of seven Lennon and seven Ono songs, the album and its first single, Lennon’s “(Just Like) Starting Over,” were instant top hits. The album also included the smash hit “Woman,” Lennon’s revealing “Watching the Wheels” (a near-smash), and the touching “Beautiful Boy.” The couple continued to work in the studio, but on Dec. 8, 1980, Lennon was shot to death outside the luxury apartment building the Dakota in Manhattan after returning from recording one night. Covered by the media in a manner usually reserved for world statesmen, Lennon’s death forever quelled rumors of a Beatles reunion and ended the career of one of this century’s most respected and profound artists.

A number of recordings by John Lennon were issued after his death. Milk and Honey, recorded in 1980, contained six songs by Yoko Ono and six by Lennon, including the smash hit “Nobody Told Me,” and “I’m Stepping Out,” “I Don’t Wanna Face It,” and “Grow Old with Me.” Live in New York City was comprised of Lennon’s final performance, Aug. 30, 1972, at Madison Square Garden (also issued on video), and Menlove Avenue was assembled from outtakes from the Rock ’n’ Roll and Walls and Bridges sessions. Imagine was taken from the 1988 film documentary of the same name.

Lennon’s life continued to be honored and celebrated through the 1980s and 1990s. In 1984 a favorite section of Central Park was renamed Strawberry Fields in his honor. On Oct. 9, 1990, Lennon’s life was celebrated in a brief ceremony at the United Nations in N.Y, after which his song “Imagine” was broadcast on more than a thousand radio stations in more than 130 countries to an estimated audience of one billion people. In 1991 Yoko Ono, Sean Ono Lennon, and Lenny Kravitz assembled an all-star cast to record Lennon’s “Give Peace a Chance” with new lyrics by Sean and Kravitz. The performers included Peter Gabriel, Bonnie Raitt, Steve Van Zandt, Iggy Pop, Randy Newman, Tom Petty, and Frank Zappa’s three children. The recording, issued on Virgin as performed by the Peace Choir, became a minor hit. In 1994 Lennon was inducted individually into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (the Beatles were inducted as a group six years earlier).

Yoko Ono recorded several albums after John Lennon’s death, including 1981’s Season of Glass and 1982’s It’s Alright (I See Rainbows). In 1984 Polydor Records issued Every Man Has a Woman, on which artists such as Elvis Costello, Rosanne Cash, and Harry Nilsson performed songs written by Ono. Following 1985’s Star-peace, Yoko Ono toured in 1986. Rykodisc compiled selections of her recordings, from 1969’s Life with the Lions to Starpeace, on the six-CD box set Onobox in 1992, followed by Walking on Thin Ice, which contained 19 songs from Onobox. In 1994 Capitol Records released the original cast recording of Yoko Ono’s Off-Broadway play New York Rock, loosely based on her life with Lennon. A year later a new album, recorded with son Sean’s band, was well-received critically if not commercially.

John Lennon’s son by Cynthia Powell, Julian Lennon, launched his own musical career in 1984 with Valotte. Julian was largely raised by his mother after his parents’ divorce in 1968. His father had given him a guitar at age 11, and he later formed his first rock group with guitarist Justin Clayton as a teenager. In 1983 he secluded himself in Valotte, France, to write and compose. Signed to Charisma Records (Atlantic in the United States) on the strength of demonstration tapes, Julian Lennon recorded Valotte under veteran producer Phil Ramone. The album yielded the near-smash “Valotte,” the smash hit “Too Late for Goodbyes,” the major hit “Say You’re Wrong,” and the minor hit “Jesse.” He toured America in 1985 and launched a world tour in 1986 in support of The Secret Value of Daydreaming, which included the moderate hit “Stick Around.” Subsequent recordings by Julian Lennon have fared progressively less well.


john lennon and yoko ono:Unfinished Music #1: Two Virgins (1968); Unfinished Music #2: Life with the Lions (1969); Wedding Album (1969); Double Fantasy (1980); Milk and Honey (1984); The J. L. Collection (1969–1980) (1982). john lennon/plastic ono band:Live Peace in Toronto, 1969 (1969); Plastic Ono Band (1970); Sometime in New York (1972). john lennon:Imagine (1971); Mind Games (1973); Walls and Bridges (1974); Rock ’n’ Roll (1975); Menlove Avenue (rec. 1974-1975; rei. 1986); Shaved Fish (1975); Live in New York City (1986); Imagine—The Motion Picture (soundtrack; 1988); Lennon (1990). tribute album:A Tribute to J. L. (1995). yoko ono/plastic ono band:Plastic Ono Band (1970); Fly (1971). yoko ono:Approximately Infinite Universe (1973); Feeling the Space (1973); Season of Glass (1981); It’s Alright (I See Rainbows) (1982); Starpeace (1985); Onobox (1992); Walking on Thin Ice (excerpts from Onobox) (1992); New York Rock (original score) (1994); Rising (1995). yoko ono tribute album:Every Man Has a Woman (1984). julian lennon:Valotte (1984); The Secret Value of Daydreaming (1986); Mr. Jordan (1989); Help Yourself (1991).


Paul Young, The Lennon Factor (N.Y., 1972); Anthony Fawcett, J. L: One Day at a Time; A Personal Biography of the Seventies (N.Y., 1976); George Tremlett, The J. L Story (London 1976); Cynthia Lennon, A Twist of Lennon (London, 1978); Vic Garbarini and Brian Cullman, with Barbara Graustark, Strawberry Fields Forever: J. L. Remembered (N.Y., 1980); Ray Connolly, J. L, 1940-1980: A Biography (London, 1981); Jonathan Cott and Christine Doudna, The Ballad of John and Yoko (Garden City, N.Y., 1982); John Green, Dakota Days: The Untold Story of John Lennon’s Final Years (N.Y., 1983); Ray Coleman, Lennon (N.Y., 1985); Peter McCabe and Robert D. Schonfeld, J. L: For the Record (N.Y, 1985); Jon Wiener, Come Together: J. L. in His Own Time (London, 1985); Albert Goldman, The Lives of J. L. (N.Y, 1988); Andrew Solt and Sam Egan, Imagine: J. L (N.Y., 1988); Elizabeth Thomson and David Gutman (eds.), The Lennon Companion: 25 Years of Comment (N.Y, 1988).

—Brock Helander

Lennon, John

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Lennon, John (1940–80) English singer and songwriter, a member of The Beatles. Lennon co-wrote the vast majority of The Beatles' songs with Paul McCartney, and appeared in the band's films and in How I Won the War (1967). He published In His Own Write (1964) and A Spaniard in the Works (1965). A major figure in the peace movement, he married Yoko Ono (1933– ) in 1969. His solo albums include Imagine (1971) and Double Fantasy (1980). On December 8, 1980, Lennon was shot dead by Mark Chapman in New York City.

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John Lennon

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