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Rodrigo, Joaquín

Rodrigo, Joaquín (b Sagunto, 1901; d Madrid, 1999). Sp. composer. Almost totally blind from age 3. Won Sp. nat. prize 1925 for orch. work Cinco Piezas Infantiles. Prof. of mus. history, Madrid Univ. from 1947. Works incl. sym.-poem Per la flor del Liri blau (1934); Concierto de Aranjuez, gui., orch. (1939); Concierto heroico, pf., orch. (1943); Concierto de estío, vn., orch. (1944); Concierto en modo galante, vc., orch. (1949); Concierto serenata, hp., orch. (1954); Fantasía para un gentilhombre, gui., orch. (1954); Concierto andaluz, 4 gui., orch. (1967); Concierto- madrigal, 2 gui., orch. (1968); Concierto pastoral, fl., orch. (1978); Concierto como un divertimento, vc., orch. (1979–81); Concierto para una fiesta, gui., orch. (1982); Tres viejos aires de danza (1994); songs; and choral works.

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Rodrigo, Joaquín

Joaquín Rodrigo, 1902–99, Spanish composer, b. Sagunto, Valencia. He lost his sight as a child and wrote his music in Braille. After his musical talent was recognized, Rodrigo studied in Paris with Paul Dukas. He returned to Spain in 1939 and became famous for his Concierto de Aranjuez for guitar and orchestra (1940), one of his many concertos designed for that pairing. His works for multiple guitars include Concierto Madrigal (1968) and Concierto Andaluz (1977). Rodrigo also wrote pieces for piano and for orchestra as well as concertos for flute, violin, and cello. The majority of his large body of music has a specifically Spanish flavor and is imbued with a serenely melodic style.

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Rodrigo, Joaquin

Rodrigo, Joaquin (1901–99) Spanish composer. He made his name with his Concierto de Aranjuez (1939), for guitar and orchestra. He also wrote concertos for violin, cello, piano, harp and flute as well as other pieces for guitar and orchestra.

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Rodrigo, Joaquín

Rodrigo, Joaquín

Rodrigo, Joaquín , eminent Spanish composer and teacher; b. Sagunto, Nov. 22, 1901; d. Madrid, July 6, 1999. He contracted diphtheria and went totally blind at the age of 4. He studied harmony and composition with Francisco Antich (1917–22), and also received advice from Enrique Gomá and Eduardo López Chavarri. In 1927 he went to Paris, where he studied with Dukas at the École Normale de Musique. In 1928 he was befriended by Falla. In 1932 he returned to Spain. He was awarded the Conde de Catagena Scholarship in 1934 and returned to Paris to pursue training in music history and musicology with Emmanuel at the Cons. and with Pirro at the Sorbonne. In 1939 he settled in Madrid, and in 1940 he was appointed to a provisional chair at the Real Cons. Superior de Musica. Rodrigo was awarded the Premio Nacional de Musica in 1942. In 1947 he was appointed to the Manuel de Falla Chair in Music as a prof. in the faculty of philosophy and arts at Madrid Complutense Univ. He was elected a full member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando of Madrid in 1950. The French government bestowed upon him the order of Officier de l’Ordre des arts et des Lettres in I960, and in 1963 the order of Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. King Juan Carlos I of Spain conferred the title of Marques de los Jardines de Aranjuez upon him in 1991, the same year that the Cons. Superior de Música in Valencia was named in his honor. His 95th birthday was the occasion of various tributes, including concerts and the Príncipe de Asturias Prize for the Arts. Rodrígo’s music is expertly crafted and is reflective of the colors and melorhythms of Spain. His most celebrated score is the Concierto de Aranjuez for Guitar and Orch. (1939; Barcelona, Nov. 9, 1940), which became a classic during his own lifetime. Among his later concertos, the Fantasia para un gentilhombre for Guitar and Orch. (1954), the Concierto madrigal for 2 Guitars and Orch. (1966), and the Concierto Andaluz for 4 Guitars and Orch. (1967) also won favor. In addition to his many fine solo guitar pieces, he also composed a number of effective solo piano pieces.

Works

DRAMATIC : El duende azul, operetta (Madrid, May 22, 1946); Pavana Real, ballet (Barcelona, Dec. 19, 1955); El hijo fingido, zarzuela (1955–60; Madrid, Dec. 5, 1964); La bella durmiente, ballet (Television Españda, Madrid, June 1962); incidental music. ORCH. : Cançoneta for Strings (Valencia, 1923); Juglares (1923; Valencia, 1924); Cinco piezas infantiles (1924; Valencia, Feb. 16, 1927); Preludio para un poema a la Alhambra (1928; Paris, May 5, 1930); Dos miniaturas andaluzas for Strings (1929); Très viejos aires de danza (1929; Valencia, Jan. 20, 1930); Zarabanda lejana y villancico for Strings (1930; Paris, March 9, 1931); Per la flor del Lliri Blau, symphonic poem (Valencia, July 26, 1934; also for Band); Concierto do Aranjuez for Guitar and Orch. (1939; Barcelona, Nov. 9, 1940; also for Harp and Orch., San Sebastián, Aug. 24, 1974); Homenage a la Tempranica (Zara-gossa, Nov. 3, 1939); Concierto nemico for Piano and Orch. (1942; Lisbon, April 3, 1943); Concierto de estio for Violin and Orch. (1943; Lisbon, April 16, 1944); Dos piezas caballeerescas for Orch. of Cellos (Madrid, May 27, 1945); Concerto in modo galante for Cello and Orch. (Madrid, Nov. 4, 1949); Concierto serenata for Harp and Orch. (1952; Madrid, Nov. 9, 1956); Soleriana (Berlin, Aug. 22, 1953); Fantasia para un gentilhombre for Guitar and Orch. (1954; San Francisco, March 5, 1958; also for Flute and Orch., 1978); Mùsica para un jardin (1957; Valencia, Feb. 23, 1958); Sones en lar Giralda for Harp and Orch. (Madrid, Dec. 23, 1963; also for Guitar and Orch.); Adagio para instrumentas de viento (Pittsburgh, June 1966); Concierto madrigal for 2 Guitars and Orch. (1966; Los Angeles, July 30, 1970); Dos danzas espanolas for Castanets and Orch. (Las Palmas, June 22, 1966); Concierto andaluz for 4 Guitars and Orch. (San Antonio, Nov. 18, 1967); A la busca del mas alia (1976; Houston, March 27, 1978); Concierto pastoral for Flute and Orch. (London, Oct. 17, 1978); Concierto corno un divertimento for Cello and Orch. (1981; London, April 15, 1982); Concierto para una fiesta for Guitar and Orch. (1982; Fort Worth, Tex., March 5, 1983); Palillos y panderetas (Música para una tonadilla imaginaria) (Madrid, Nov. 30, 1982); Rincones de España, guitar concerto (1990; N.Y., March 7, 1991). CHAMBER : Dos esbozos for Violin and Piano (1923; Paris, Nov. 18, 1928); Siciliana for Cello and Piano (1929; Paris, March 9, 1930); Rumaniana for Violin and Piano (1943); Aria antigua for Flute and Piano (Madrid, June 10, 1959; also for Flute and Guitar, Madrid, Dec. 18, 1994, and for Flute and Percussion, Madrid, Feb. 21, 1996); Sonata pimpante for Violin and Piano (Brussels, Feb. 26, 1966); Sonata a la breve for Cello and Piano (Barcelona, May 11, 1977); Serenaata al alba del dia for Flute or Violin and Guitar (1982; Los Angeles, Dec. 7, 1983); Set cancons valencianes for Violin and Piano (1982). Piano : Suite (1923); Canción y danza (1925); Bagatela (1926); Preludio al gallo mananero (1926; Paris, March 14, 1928); Serenata española (1931); Sonada de adios (Homenaje a Paul Dukas) (1935); Cuatro piezas (1938; Paris, March 9, 1939); Cuatro piezas del sigio XVI (1938); Gran marcha de los subsecretarios for Piano, 4-Hands (1941); Très danzas de España (1941); A l’ombre de Torre Bermeja (1945); Cuatro estampas andaluzas (1946–52; Valencia, April 8, 1952); El álbum de Cecilia (1948; Madrid, May 15, 1952); Sonatas de Costala (con toccata a modo de pregón) (1950–51; Madrid, Nov. 18, 1951); Danza de la amapola (1972); Atardecer for Piano, 4-Hands (1975; Aranjuez, Jan. 28, 1988); Sonatina para dos munecas for Piano, 4-Hands (1977); Très evocaciones (Homenaje a Joaquin Turína) (1981; Seville, Jan. 19, 1983); Preludio de añoranza (1987; Madrid, March 21, 1988). Guitar : En los trigales (1938); Tiento antiguo (1942); Bajando de la meseta (1954); Très piezas espanolas (1954); Entre olivares (1956); Juto al Generalife (1959); Tonadilla for 2 Guitars (1959); En tierras de Jerez (1960); Sonata giocosa (1960); Invocación y danza (Homenaje a Manuel de Falla) (1961; Brède, France, May 12, 1962); Très pequeñas piezas (1963); Sonata a la espanola (Rome, May 30, 1969); Elogio de la guitarra (1971); Pájaros de primavera (1972); Dos preludios (1977); Tríptico (1978); Un tiempo fue Itálica famosa (1981); f Qué buen caminito! (Pequeña fantasía) (Seville, Oct. 10, 1987). VOCAL : Quatre cançons en llengua catalana for Soprano and Orch. (Barcelona, Oct. 17, 1946); Triptic de Mosén Cinto for Soprano and Orch. (Barcelona, Oct. 17, 1946); Cuatro madrigales amatorios for Soprano and Piano (1947; Madrid, Feb. 4, 1948; also for Soprano and Orch.); Romance del Comendador de Ocana for Soprano and Orch. (1947; Madrid, April 5, 1948); Ausencias de Dulcinea for Bass-baritone, 4 Sopranos, and Orch. (Madrid, April 19, 1948); Doce cancioes españolas for Voice and Piano (1951; Madrid, May 3, 1952); Villancicos y cantiones de Navidad for Soprano, Baritone, Chorus, and Orch. (1952; León, Dec. 22, 1970); Mùsica para un còdice salmantino, cantata for Bass, Chorus, and Orch. (Salamanca, Oct. 12, 1953); Cánticos nuptiales for 3 Sopranos and Organ (Madrid, April 6, 1963); Cantos de amor y de guerre for Soprano and Orch. (1965; Madrid, March 15, 1968); Himnos de los neófitos de Qumrán for 3 Sopranos, Men’s Chorus, and Orch. (Cuenca, April 15, 1965; rev. version, Cuenca, March 25, 1975); Rosaliana for Soprano and Orch. (La Coruña, July 29, 1965); Con Antonio Machado for Voice and Piano (Seville, Oct. 4, 1971); Cantico de San Francisco de Asis for Chorus and Orch. (1982; London, March 15, 1986). OTHER : Arrangements by Rodrígo and others of many of his works.

Bibliography

F. Sopeña, J. R. (Madrid, 1946); idem, J. R. (Madrid, 1970); V. Vayá Pia, J. R., su vida y su obra (Madrid, 1977); G. Wade, J. R.: Concierto de Aranjuez (Leeds, 1985); V. Kamhi, De la mano de J. R.: Historia de nuestro vida (Madrid, 1986; Eng. tr., 1992, as Hand in Hand with j. R.: My Life at the Maestro’s Side); J. Arnau Amo, La obra J. R. (Valencia, 1992); L. Newcomb, J. R. and Spanish Nationalism (Gainesvilles, Fla., 1995); G. Wade, Distant Sarabandes: The Solo Guitar Music of J. R. (York, 1996); A. Gonzalez Lapuente, J. R. (Madrid, 1997).

—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire

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