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Bülow, Hans (Guido) Freiherr von

Bülow, Hans (Guido) Freiherr von (b Dresden, 1830; d Cairo, 1894). Ger. conductor, pianist, and composer. Became law student but abandoned it for mus. under influence of f.p. of Wagner's Lohengrin at Weimar. Went to Zurich for instruction from Wagner. Pf. pupil of Liszt, 1851. First concert tour of Ger., 1853. Prin. pf. prof., Stern-Marx Cons., Berlin, 1855–64, during which time developed conducting potentialities in addition to making many tours as concert pianist. Married Liszt's daughter Cosima, 1857. Chief cond., Munich Royal Opera, 1864, and there cond. f.p. of Tristan und Isolde (1865) and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1868) to the composer's immense satisfaction. In 1869 left Munich, partly because of Wagner's affair with Cosima; they were divorced the next year. (In 1882 he married Marie Schanzer, the actress.) First visit to London 1873, to USA 1875–6. Gave f.p. of Tchaikovsky's 1st pf. conc. (Boston, 25 Oct. 1875). In 1880 became court cond. to Duke of Meiningen and made the court orch. finest in Europe for disciplined playing. Resigned 1885, handing over to his protégé Richard Strauss. Cond. Berlin PO 1887–93. In 1888 became cond. of opera and concerts in Hamburg. Comp. orch. and pf. works and pubd. edn. of Beethoven sonatas. Also ed. kbd. works of J. S. Bach, Chopin, D. Scarlatti, Weber, and others.

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Bülow, Hans Guido, Freiherr von

Hans Guido Bülow, Freiherr von (häns gē´dō frī´hĕr fən bü´lō), 1830–94, German pianist and conductor. After hearing Wagner's Lohengrin in 1850 at Weimar under Liszt's direction, he studied piano with Liszt and later conducted the premieres of several of Wagner's operas. In 1857 he married Liszt's daughter Cosima, who left him in 1869 and later became the wife of Wagner. While retaining his admiration of Wagner's music, Bülow became the most ardent champion of Brahms. He framed the aphorism that Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms are the three B's of music. One of the first pianists to be concerned with stylistically proper performances, Bülow made critical editions of the works of many composers. The first of the modern virtuoso conductors, he achieved his greatest distinction as conductor (1880–85) of the ducal orchestra at Meiningen.

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