Bülow, Hans (Guido) Freiherr von

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Bülow, Hans (Guido) Freiherr von (b Dresden, 1830; d Cairo, 1894). Ger. conductor, pianist, and composer. Became law student but abandoned it for mus. under influence of f.p. of Wagner's Lohengrin at Weimar. Went to Zurich for instruction from Wagner. Pf. pupil of Liszt, 1851. First concert tour of Ger., 1853. Prin. pf. prof., Stern-Marx Cons., Berlin, 1855–64, during which time developed conducting potentialities in addition to making many tours as concert pianist. Married Liszt's daughter Cosima, 1857. Chief cond., Munich Royal Opera, 1864, and there cond. f.p. of Tristan und Isolde (1865) and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1868) to the composer's immense satisfaction. In 1869 left Munich, partly because of Wagner's affair with Cosima; they were divorced the next year. (In 1882 he married Marie Schanzer, the actress.) First visit to London 1873, to USA 1875–6. Gave f.p. of Tchaikovsky's 1st pf. conc. (Boston, 25 Oct. 1875). In 1880 became court cond. to Duke of Meiningen and made the court orch. finest in Europe for disciplined playing. Resigned 1885, handing over to his protégé Richard Strauss. Cond. Berlin PO 1887–93. In 1888 became cond. of opera and concerts in Hamburg. Comp. orch. and pf. works and pubd. edn. of Beethoven sonatas. Also ed. kbd. works of J. S. Bach, Chopin, D. Scarlatti, Weber, and others.