Swiss criminalist Max Frei-Sulzer made many contributions to the field of forensic science in his lifetime, including founding the first Swiss criminalistics laboratory, and developing the tape life method of collecting trace evidence . He is also known for debatable findings he made in two high-profile identification cases, the authenticity of the Hitler Diaries and the Shroud of Turin.
Born in 1913, Frei-Sulzer worked as a freelance criminalist for many years in Switzerland. He also taught microscopical techniques at Zurich University, and in 1950, he was asked to create the first Swiss crime laboratory, the Zurich Police Scientific Laboratory. While director of the facility, he developed the tape lift method for evidence collection. By applying a piece of sticky tape to a surface, a scientist can collect particles that can then be examined under a microscope. The tape preserves the spatial relationship of the particles and fibers. This technique was a major advance in trace analysis, and is a method still used today.
In 1973, Frei-Sulzer served as a consultant to a commission investigating the authenticity of the famous Shroud of Turin, a cloth depicting the image of a crucified man that some believe to be the burial cloth of Jesus. Frei-Sulzer took samples from the cloth using the tape lift method, and studied the samples for two years. After analysis, he reported finding pollens originating from plants grown in Palestine during the time of Christ, thus supporting the theory of the Shroud being authentic. After Frei-Sulzer's report, however, other scientists conducted similar tests on the Shroud and disagreed with his findings. While many people now question Frei-Sulzer's credibility in the case, the debate regarding the authenticity of the Shroud still goes on. Frei-Sulzer's role in the Shroud investigation is documented in many books and journal articles.
Later in his career, Frei-Sulzer's credibility was again questioned when he performed a handwriting analysis of the Hitler Diaries, purported to be the personal writings of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. Frei-Sulzer pronounced the diaries as genuine, but shortly thereafter the diaries were proved to be fake. It is believed that Frei-Sulzer's incorrect analysis resulted from him performing a comparison analysis with other forgeries, instead of actual Hitler writing samples.
see also Ancient cases and mysteries; Document forgery; Locard's exchange principle; Palynology.
"Frei-Sulzer, Max." World of Forensic Science. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 23, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/frei-sulzer-max
"Frei-Sulzer, Max." World of Forensic Science. . Retrieved March 23, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/frei-sulzer-max
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.