Skip to main content
Select Source:

Haviland, John

Haviland, John (1792–1852). Born in Somerset, England, he became a pupil of James Elmes. He settled in the USA in 1816, where he designed several buildings, including the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, PA (1825–6), with a severe Greek Revival front based on the Choragic Monument of Thrasyllus, Athens. He published The Builder's Assistant (1818–21), intended, like his other publishing and teaching activities, to augment his meagre earnings as an architect: it was the first American publication in which the Greek Orders were depicted, and was reissued in four volumes in 1830. He designed the first prison in the USA built in accordance with the ideas of English reformers, the Eastern State Penitentiary, Philadelphia (1821–37), using a Gothic castellated style. He brought out a new edition of Owen Biddle's (1737–99) Young Carpenter's Assistant (first published in 1805) in 1830, embellished with new plates, including an illustration of his Miner's Bank, Pottsville, PA (1830–1—demolished), with its façade covered with iron plates made in such a way to look like ashlar. His many churches and private houses were mostly in the Greek Revival style, but his building housing the New York City Halls of Justice and House of Detention, known as the ‘Tombs’ (1835–8), was in the Egyptian Revival style, calculated to instil awe and terror in all who saw it. He first used Egyptianizing details at the New Jersey State Penitentiary, near Trenton (1832–6), partly for reasons of economy, but partly to suggest the ‘misery which awaits the unhappy being’ unfortunate enough to be incarcerated, for the building was Sublimely robust and terrifying, with its large areas of blank walls and sinister portico set between two pylons. Egyptianesque, too, was his Essex County Court House and Gaol, Newark, NJ (1836–8). Haviland has been called the greatest of the American Egyptian Revival architects.

Bibliography

Carrott (1978);
Hamlin (1964);
Haviland (1830, 1830a);
Hitchcock (1976);
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, xxiii/2 (May 1964), 101–5, xxv/3 (Sept.1966), 197–208, xxvi/4 (Dec.1967), 307–9;
Kennedy (1989);
Tatman & and Moss (1985);
Teeters & and Shearer (1957);
Whiffen & and Koeper (1983)

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Haviland, John." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Haviland, John." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 27, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/haviland-john

"Haviland, John." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved May 27, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/haviland-john

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Haviland, John

John Haviland (hăv´Ĭlənd), 1792–1852, American architect, b. Philadelphia. Haviland was noted as a pioneer in prison architecture. His design for the Pennsylvania Eastern State Penitentiary was imitated internationally and heralded prison reform in the 19th cent. Haviland's prisons were characterized by light, airy cells occupied by a single inmate; his designs were soon outmoded by the rise of prison populations.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Haviland, John." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 May. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Haviland, John." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 27, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/haviland-john

"Haviland, John." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 27, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/haviland-john

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.