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Mary Boykin Chesnut

Mary Boykin Chesnut

Diarist Mary Boykin Chesnut (1823-1886) captured an intimate view of the political and personal struggles of the Confederate South during the Civil War. Her journal of the war years describes not only the difficulties of war, but also reveals her personal views on the similarities between the system of slavery and the position of women in the South.

The Civil War diaries of Mary Boykin Chesnut, a Southern woman from a well-to-do political family, provide an in-depth view of the attitudes and experiences of Southerners during the war between the states. After the war Chesnut recognized the literary and historic value of her observations and began to revise her diaries, but only one small excerpt was published during her lifetime. Following her death in 1886, heavily edited versions of her diary were released, and it was not until 1981 that a complete edition of her work appeared. Chesnut's writing is valued for its revealing personal anecdotes and candid opinions that reflect a strong support for women's rights and the abolition of slavery.

Chesnut was born Mary Boykin Miller on March 31, 1823, in Statesburg, South Carolina. She was the oldest child of Mary Boykin, the daughter of wealthy plantation owners, and Stephen Decatur Miller, a prominent politician who strongly supported states' rights. Her father was a South Carolina senator at the time of Chesnut's birth and had previously served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. During her early years, Chesnut and her family lived on the plantation of her maternal grandparents near Camden, South Carolina. When her father was elected governor of the state in 1828, the Millers moved to the capital city of Columbia, returning to Camden when Stephen Miller won a U.S. Senate seat in 1830. By the time her father resigned from the Senate in 1833 due to health problems, Chesnut had begun attending a local school in Camden.

When she was 12, Chesnut was sent to Charleston, South Carolina, to attend Madame Talvande's French School for Young Ladies. There she completed her education with academic courses in literature, science, and history as well as instruction in music, singing, and dancing. In 1836, she met James Chesnut, Jr., a Princeton University graduate who had come to the school to visit his niece. James took an interest in the lively and intelligent girl, and over the following years he began to court her despite objections from Chesnut's family. The two were married on April 23, 1840, and at the age of 17, Chesnut settled with her husband at his family's plantation, Mulberry, outside Camden.

Supported South's Stand on States' Rights

Chesnut had a flair for society life and a passion for literature. She found Mulberry to be a stifling environment where it was difficult to indulge in these interests. In 1848, she and James built a house in the town of Camden where she was able to escape the tedium of the plantation. Her husband had begun a promising career in state politics, and by 1854 they were able to move to a larger and more impressive home—called Kamchatka—in Camden. With James's election to the U.S. Senate in 1858, the couple left for Washington, D.C., where Chesnut enjoyed a thriving social scene. She also took an interest in the divisive political arguments over states' rights that had continued to gain intensity in the national government. Chesnut supported the position that her father had promoted during his career and that her husband now championed. Even though neither she nor James believed in the institution of slavery, they did uphold the right of states to make their own decisions on such matters. The election of Abraham Lincoln, who opposed slavery, to the presidency in 1860 angered Southerners, and with the secession of Southern states from the Union, the threat of a civil war loomed over the nation. When on November 10, 1860, her husband became the first Southern senator to resign from his post, Chesnut realized that a critical period of history was unfolding.

In February of 1861, Chesnut began a diary that recorded the explosive happenings around her as well as her own thoughts about the issues, events, and people that she encountered during the years of the Civil War, from 1861 until 1865. Her writings also captured Chesnut's spirited personality and her intolerance for the indecisive and foolish. Following her husband on his various duties in the South at this time, Chesnut provides a first-hand view of the political world of the Confederacy. In the first part of 1861, she went to Montgomery, Alabama, where James participated in the Confederate Provisional Congress. They then traveled to Charleston, South Carolina, where James was part of negotiations over the departure of Northern troops from nearby Fort Sumter. When Southern forces opened fire on the fort in the first battle of the war, Chesnut joined others in town in viewing the skirmish from a rooftop.

Recorded Experiences of Civil War

The novelty of war was soon replaced by a horror at the realities: destruction of property, political confusion, poverty and hunger, and the tremendous number of wounded and dead. Chesnut recorded the stories she heard about various battles as well as her personal experiences, such as tending sick and wounded soldiers and mourning the loss of friends and acquaintances. She had strong criticism for the fearful and conservative decisions of Southern leaders, including her husband. Chesnut was frustrated by James's lack of interest in the bloody conflicts in nearby Virginia and his reluctance to ask for the diplomatic posts in Europe that he wanted. In her diary she complained about her lack of power as a woman in the South, stating that she wished she could be a man so she could be more active in the war effort. She even admitted the hope that Confederate president Jefferson Davis would name her, instead of her timid husband, to a post in Paris.

James Chesnut was promoted to the rank of colonel and named an aide to Jefferson Davis in 1862. He and his wife moved to the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, where they became close and loyal friends of Davis and his wife, Varina, whom Chesnut had known for many years. The pressures of his post in Richmond placed a great strain on James, however, and in 1864 he successfully arranged for a transfer to Columbia, South Carolina. There he attained the rank of brigadier general and organized reserve troops. By the beginning of 1865, Union troops under General Sherman had entered North Carolina and the defeat of the South appeared inevitable. Chesnut removed to Lincolnton, North Carolina, to wait out the war in safety.

With growing hopelessness she recorded the incoming news of the disintegration of the Confederate forces. In April of 1865, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, ending the Civil War. Chesnut returned to her home state, settling in the town of Chester. Her house there served as a temporary place of refuge for Varina Davis and her four children as they attempted to escape arrest by Union forces in the war's aftermath.

Revised Diary for Publication

The Chesnuts returned to Camden, where the Mulberry plantation had suffered extensive damage at the hands of the Union Army. With few resources, they worked to piece together a new life, struggling to overcome the heavy debt into which both Mulberry and the family's Sandy Hill plantation had fallen. Both properties were inherited by James at the death of his father in 1866, and he and his wife returned to some level of comfort when they were able to build a new home, Sarsfield, in Camden in 1873. It was then that Chesnut began to evaluate the extensive diaries that she had compiled during the war. She hoped to use the material as the basis for novels, but after an unsatisfactory attempt at fiction, she decided to prepare her diaries for publication in their original first-person format. While working to edit the material and polish the prose over the next few years, she published one story from her diary in the Charleston Weekly News and Courier as "The Arrest of a Spy." This was the only item that Chesnut published during her life.

In the late 1870s and early 1880s, Chesnut's work was interrupted by a series of ailments of her lungs and heart. Her husband and mother also fell into poor health and died within a week of each other in January of 1885. This experience left her depressed and reduced in fortunes, due to a clause in James's father's will that required the plantations to be passed on to a male heir. Because Chesnut had never had children, she found herself in her final years with only the Sarsfield home and a small income of 100 dollars a year, which she supplemented by selling eggs and butter. Despite her hardships, she continued to rework various portions of the diary until her death of a heart attack in Camden on November 22, 1886.

Diary Published after Death

Editions of Chesnut's diary appeared in the early 1900s under the title, A Diary from Dixie. Early editors of the work, however, took great liberties in removing material they thought inappropriate or unnecessary. But even these incomplete versions became extremely popular for their wealth of information about the difficulties of Southern life during the Civil War. The diary also revealed a strong support for the end of slavery among Southern women, whom Chesnut felt were also enduring a kind of enslavement by the traditional male-dominated society of the South. The author reveals a strong revulsion for the moral lapses that such a system tolerated, giving the example of her father-in-law's liaison with one of his slave women. Readers also appreciated Chesnut's intellectual bent and her references to a wide range of literary works, as well as her often humorous jabs at what she perceived as the ridiculous side of society. A 1981 edition entitled Mary Chesnut's Civil War provided for the first time the complete version of the diary that Chesnut had intended for readers, revealing the full depths of her valuable personal history of the Civil War South.

Further Reading

For more information see Chesnut, Mary Boykin, Mary Boykin's Civil War, edited by C. Vann Woodward, Yale University Press, 1981; Chesnut, Mary Boykin, The Private Mary Chesnut: The Unpublished Civil War Diaries, edited by C. Vann Woodward and Elisabeth Muhlenfeld, Oxford University Press, 1984; and Muhlenfeld, Elisabeth, Mary Boykin Chesnut: A Biography, Louisiana State University Press, 1981. □

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Chesnut, Mary Boykin

Mary Boykin Chesnut

Born: March 31, 1823
Statesburg, South Carolina
Died: November 22, 1886
Camden, South Carolina

American diarist and writer

Mary Boykin Chesnut kept a famous diary that captured the struggles people experienced during the American Civil War (186165; a war between the northern and southern states). Her journal of the war years gives readers an in-depth view of what life was like for Southerners, especially women, during the war.

Early years

Mary Boykin Chesnut was born Mary Boykin Miller on March 31, 1823, in Statesburg, South Carolina. She was the oldest child of Mary Boykin Miller, the daughter of wealthy owners of a plantation (a large farm or estate with resident workers or slaves). Her father was Stephen Decatur Miller, a prominent politician who strongly supported states' rights, the idea that individual U.S. states should have supreme powers over the national government to set their own policies, including the power to legalize slavery. He was a South Carolina senator at the time of Chesnut's birth and had previously served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. During her early years, Chesnut and her family lived on her grandparents' plantation near Camden, South Carolina. When her father was elected governor of South Carolina in 1828, the Millers moved to the capital city of Columbia, returning to Camden when Stephen Miller won a U.S. Senate seat in 1830. By the time her father resigned from the Senate in 1833 due to health problems, Chesnut had begun attending a local school in Camden.

When Chesnut was twelve, she was sent to Charleston, South Carolina, to attend Madame Talvande's French School for Young Ladies. There she completed her education with classes in literature, science, and history, as well as instruction in music, singing, and dancing. In 1836 she met James Chesnut, Jr., a Princeton University graduate who had visited the school to see his niece. James took an interest in the lively and intelligent girl, and over the following years he began to show romantic interest in her, despite objections from the Chesnut family. Even though Mary's family took her away for a time to Mississippi, partly to avoid James Chesnut's attentions, she married James on April 23, 1840, at the age of seventeen. She settled with her husband at his family's plantation outside Camden.

Senator's wife

When James Chesnut was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1858, the couple moved to Washington, D.C. There Mary Chesnut enjoyed the social scene and became interested in the intense political arguments over states' rights. Mary supported the position that her father had promoted during his career and that her husband now championed. Although neither she nor James believed in the institution of slavery, they did uphold the right of states to make their own decisions on such matters.

Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency in 1860 angered Southerners, and with the secession (formal withdrawal) of Southern states from the United States, the threat of civil war loomed. On November 10, 1860, James Chesnut became the first Southern senator to resign from his post.

Chesnut's diary

In February 1861 Mary began a diary that recorded the explosive happenings around her during the years of the Civil War. Following her husband on his duties in the South, she provides a firsthand view of the political world of the Confederacy (the name for the Southern states that had seceded and fought as a group). After the war's first battles, she soon began to write of the horrors of the war as well. She recorded the stories she heard about various battles as well as her personal experiences, including tending sick and wounded soldiers and mourning the loss of friends and acquaintances. She strongly criticized the decisions of Southern leaders, and she complained about her lack of power as a woman in the South.

As the war worsened for the South, defeat seemed impossible to avoid by the beginning of 1865. To avoid danger, Mary moved to North Carolina, where, with growing hopelessness, she recorded the news of the Confederate army's collapse. In April of 1865, Confederate general Robert E. Lee (18071870) surrendered in Appomattox, Virginia, ending the Civil War.

Publication of diary

After the war the Chesnuts returned to Camden. In 1873 Mary began to evaluate the extensive diaries that she had compiled during the war, and eventually she decided to publish them. While working to prepare and polish the material over the next few years, she published one story from her diary in the Charleston Weekly News and Courier. This was the only item that Mary published during her life.

In the late 1870s and early 1880s, Mary's work was interrupted by a series of illnesses affecting her lungs and heart. Both her husband and mother had died in January 1885, and she was left depressed and with a reduced income. She died of a heart attack in Camden on November 22, 1886.

After Mary's death, printed versions of her work appeared in the early 1900s. Although editors removed some material, even these incomplete versions became extremely popular for their wealth of information about the difficulties of Southern life during the Civil War. The diary also revealed her strong support for greater rights for Southern women, whom Mary felt were also enduring a kind of slavery in the traditional male-dominated society of the South. In 1981 a publication entitled Mary Chesnut's Civil War provided for the first time the complete version of her diary, revealing the full depths of Mary Chesnut's valuable personal history of the Civil War.

For More Information

Chesnut, Mary Boykin. A Diary from Dixie. Rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980.

Decredico, Mary A. Mary Boykin Chesnut: A Confederate Woman's Life. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1996.

Muhlenfeld, Elisabeth. Mary Boykin Chesnut: A Biography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1981.

Woodward, C. Vann, ed. Mary Boykin's Civil War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981.

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Chesnut, Mary Boykin

CHESNUT, MARY BOYKIN

(b. March 31, 1823; d. November 22, 1886) Author of an important Civil War diary.

Mary Boykin Chesnut penned one of the most significant Civil War diaries ever written. Born to a wealthy planter family in Statesburg, South Carolina, on March 31, 1823, Chesnut enjoyed all the advantages of privilege. Her father, Stephen Decatur Miller, was governor of South Carolina and a leading "nullifier," a states' rights advocate, in the 1820s, so she also received a formidable education in politics. Outgoing, vivacious, and mature beyond her seventeen years, she married James Chesnut, Jr., scion of another prominent South Carolina family, in 1840. Their marriage led them to the center of American and Confederate politics from 1840 until James's death in 1885. Mary Chesnut outlived her husband by one year, succumbing to heart disease on November 22, 1886.

Mary Boykin's marriage to James Chesnut had unanticipated consequences. James Chesnut rose through the ranks of South Carolina politics to become one of the state's most respected leaders. He was also the first U.S.

senator to resign his seat after the election of Abraham Lincoln in November 1860. Because of his status and prestige, the Palmetto State elected him to the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States of America. From there, he served in a number of official capacities and ultimately became a military aide to President Jefferson Davis. As a result, Mary Chesnut viewed the rise and fall of the Confederate nation from the vantage point of the highest social and political circles in Montgomery, Richmond, and Columbia.

From the beginning, Chesnut was a staunch defender of the Confederate cause. Despite championing secession and independence, however, the intelligent and ambitious Chesnut became disgusted with the caliber of politicians within the Confederate government. The antebellum elite that governed in Richmond was, to Chesnut, composed of "fossils" instead of "young & active spirits" who were required to lead the South to independence. One politician Chesnut did admire was President Jefferson Davis. He and his wife Varina became two of Chesnut's closest friends. Davis sought Chesnut out repeatedly to discuss the Southern cause. Hence she was a frequent visitor to their home and gained an intimate look at the tide of Confederate fortunes. Her diary entries reflect military reverses, include candid discussions of the nature and legitimacy of secession, detail political infighting, and chronicle the downward spiral of morale. Chesnut's accounts also portray the work many Southern women undertook in support of the cause and the very active social life she and members of the elite enjoyed even during the darkest days of the war.

Chesnut's diary also speaks openly about her opposition to slavery. In numerous passages, she railed against Northern abolitionists who invaded the region and sought to conquer the South. Yet Chesnut also assailed her countrymen for embracing an institution that she felt was morally wrong. For all her disgust, however, she, like all members of the Southern elite, was totally dependent on slavery. She might mention her loathing, but she did not rise in the morning, dress, or take a meal without the assistance of a slave.

In 1864 the Chesnuts returned to South Carolina. Here, Mary Chesnut would witness the final downfall of the plantation South. Forced to join the ranks of the refugees, she found herself in an unfamiliar position: she was dependent on strangers and was short of money. She struggled to stay ahead of the advancing Union armies, but with the news of General Robert E. Lee's surrender, Chesnut and her husband returned to their plantation traveling along Sherman's track. It was, as Chesnut recorded it, a journey marked by vistas of desolation.

Like so many Southerners, the Chesnuts lost everything in the aftermath of emancipation. With her former slave, she eked out a small income—$140 a year—with which she supported her husband and various relatives who returned to Camden, South Carolina, and the Mulberry plantation. She continued to revise and rewrite parts of her journals but died before they were finished. Happily, she entrusted them to a friend who saw to their eventual publication.

Mary Chesnut's life highlights the paradoxes of the Confederate experience and many Southerners' way of life. She championed liberty and scorned slavery, but her survival depended in every way on the institution. She contributed to the war effort, but never let those contributions intrude on her very active social life. Finally, she was forced to flee in the face of Sherman's juggernaut and experienced the very difficult life of a refugee. In her life and experiences, we can see a microcosm of the Confederate nation.

bibliography

DeCredico, Mary A. Mary Boykin Chesnut: A Confederate Woman's Life. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1996.

Rable, George C. Civil Wars: Women and the Crisis of Southern Nationalism. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Woodward, C. Vann, ed. Mary Chesnut's Civil War. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1982.

Mary A. DeCredico

See also:Sherman's March to the Sea.

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