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Manuel I

Manuel I

Manuel I (1469-1521) was king of Portugal from 1495 to 1521. Known as "the Fortunate," he oversaw the formation of the Portuguese Empire and strengthened the position of the monarchy.

The son of the Duke of Viseu, Manuel was born on May 31, 1469, at Alcochete. He was the cousin and brother-in-law of King John II of Portugal. The heir to the throne, Prince Afonso, was killed in an accident in 1491, and thereafter the royal succession devolved upon Manuel.

Manuel married in turn two daughters of the joint rulers of Castile and Aragon, Ferdinand and Isabella; his third marriage was to their granddaughter Leonor, sister of the emperor Charles V. Manuel's Spanish marriages extracted from him a reluctant promise to Ferdinand and Isabella to expel all Portuguese Jews. Himself unmoved by anti-Semitic passions, he accepted the "technical conversion" of the Jews, granting them a 20-year period of grace before allowing inquiries to be made into the character of their actual beliefs.

In other ways Manuel's policies more closely paralleled the centralizing measures of his Spanish in-laws. He restored the powerful Braganza faction, exiled under his predecessor. But he also turned the nobility into a pensioned clientele of the monarchy, and he ordered a revision of the legal code to bolster the royal supremacy. The government now passed under the control of administrative professionals, and the Cortes (Parliament) gave up its legislative initiative. He further reduced municipal liberties and suppressed the autonomous governing functions of the Lisbon guilds.

Abroad, although there was a decisive setback in the Portuguese effort to conquer North Africa, Manuel bolstered the Portuguese presence in Morocco. Under royal control, small-scale sugar production in Madeira was expanded to reach markets all over Europe. In West Africa the slave and gold trades increased their profitability, and the Portuguese expanded their influence in the Congo.

But the greatest achievements of Manuel's reign were the completion of the oceanic link with East Africa and India begun by Prince Henry the Navigator's captains; the discovery of Brazil; and the laying of the foundations of the Portuguese commercial empire in the East. The first of these tasks was entrusted to Vasco da Gama, whose epochal voyage (1497-1499) established direct contact with an Indian center of the spice trade, Calicut. On a second voyage to India, Pedro Álvares Cabral sailed far to the southwest and landed on a strip of Brazilian coast (April 1500) before heading eastward for the Cape of Good Hope.

Under two viceregal agents, Francisco de Almeida and Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese made a dramatic, if not wholly successful, attempt to drive the Moslems from the Indian Ocean and to replace them and their Venetian commercial allies as spice merchants to Europe. Albuquerque acquired a permanent base of Portuguese power in Goa; and he pursued the retreating Moslems even farther east, to the Malay spice port of Malacca.

Yet, although these accomplishments brought in an immediate flow of treasure to the royal coffers, the Portuguese found their resources insufficient to complete their strategy of gaining total military-commercial control of Eastern waters. The Venetians were later to regain an important share of the Oriental spice trade, and the costs of covering the long Portuguese voyages, combined with falling prices based on the increased influx of spices, were to greatly reduce the profitability of the Eastern commercial empire to the Crown. Manuel died on Dec. 13, 1521.

Further Reading

An account of Manuel's reign is in H. V. Livermore, A New History of Portugal (1966). There is a vast literature in Portuguese and a growing number of studies in English concerned with Portuguese power in the East. A brief account of the concluding voyages of exploration and the first engagements in Eastern waters is Boies Penrose, Travel and Discovery in the Renaissance, 1420-1620 (1952). For the Portuguese Eastern Empire see any of the following works by Charles R. Boxer: "The Portuguese in the East, 1500-1800" in H. V. Livermore, ed., Portugal and Brazil: An Introduction (1953); Four Centuries of Portuguese Expansion, 1415-1825: A Succinct Survey (1961); and The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825 (1969). A history of the region into which the Portuguese incursion was made is Auguste Toussaint, History of the Indian Ocean (1966). Extracts from firsthand accounts of the Portuguese ventures are in J. H. Parry, ed., The European Reconnaissance: Selected Documents (1968). □

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Manuel I (1469–1521)

Manuel I (14691521)

King of Portugal during whose reign the Portuguese extended their overseas empire and made it the largest among all European nations. Born in Alcochete, he was the grandson of King John I and the cousin and brother-in-law of John II, whom he succeeded as king in 1495. Although he was raised in a court of dangerous intrigue and violence, he was favored by John II as his heir after John's legitimate son died in an accident and his illegitimate son was denied the throne. For this reason Manuel is also known as the Fortunate.

Manuel was an enthusiastic supporter of Portugal's explorations in Asia and South America. During his reign, Vasco da Gama found a sea route to the Indian port of Calicut, Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil, and Portugal won a monopoly over the trade of the entire Indian Ocean. Portuguese merchants were settled in the Indian port of Goa, which served as a central base for Portugal's commercial empire in the east. These merchants brought home a fortune in trade goods from the East Indies, allowing the king the money to raise many important palaces and religious buildings designed in a uniquely national style known as Manueline. The king signed important trade treaties with China and Persia, and also was an energetic ruler at home, reforming the tax and justice systems and making the nobility more subservient to the king. He took two daughters of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella as wives, but failed in his ambition to unite the monarchies of Spain and Portugal and pass the throne on to his descendants. Although the Spanish monarchs demanded that Manuel expel all the Jews from his kingdom as a condition of these marriages, he instead allowed them to remain for a period of twenty years and banned any official inquiry into their religious beliefs.

See Also: Aviz, House of; da Gama, Vasco; exploration; Portugal

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Manuel I (1469–1521, king of Portugal)

Manuel I, 1469–1521, king of Portugal (1495–1521), successor of John II. Manuel's reign was most notable for the successful continuation of Portugal's overseas enterprises. John had planned the expedition in search of a sea route to India and had appointed Vasco da Gama to head it, but it was under Manuel that the epochal voyage was made (1497–99) and that the wealth of the Indies began to pour into Portugal. Cabral announced the discovery of the coast of Brazil (1500), and such commanders as Francisco de Almeida and Afonso de Albuquerque built up the Portuguese commercial empire. Portugal became the leading commercial nation of the West. This sudden wealth, however, soon had corrupting effects on officials and started the process of turning interest away from the agricultural and industrial development of Portugal itself. In order to marry Isabel, eldest daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, Manuel accepted (1496) the Spanish condition that he expel the Jews and Moors from Portugal. However, because he did not wish to lose a community that had contributed much to learning and science in Portugal and had provided many able artisans, he first attempted a policy of forcible conversion of the Jews. Though Manuel promised that no investigation would be made into the faith of the "new Christians," he could not prevent the departure of some Jews. Nor could he prevent a great massacre of the Jews in Lisbon in 1506, though he punished the perpetrators. Manuel used his new wealth to erect some beautiful buildings, including the Hieronymite monastery at Belém (now in Lisbon), near the spot where Vasco da Gama embarked for India. He also revised the laws and strengthened the power of the king. He was succeeded by his son, John III.

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Manuel II (Byzantine emperor)

Manuel II (Manuel Palaeologus), 1350–1425, Byzantine emperor (1391–1425), son and successor of John V. In his youth he was taken captive by the Turks, and during his reign the Ottomans reduced the empire to Constantinople and its dependencies in the Peloponnesus. After the failure of the crusade of Sigismund of Hungary (later Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund) at Nikopol (1396), Manuel appealed to the West for aid and made a futile European journey (1399–1402) for that purpose. His nephew, John VII, was coemperor during that time and, with Boucicaut, defended Constantinople against the siege by Sultan Beyazid I. The victory of Timur over Beyazid at Ankara, in the same year, temporarily saved Constantinople. By 1422 the Turks were again strong enough to attack Constantinople, and in 1425 Manuel was forced to pay tribute to the sultan. Afflicted with partial paralysis in his last years, Manuel devoted himself to religious writing, entrusting the government to his son and successor, John VIII.

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Manuel II (1889–1932, king of Portugal)

Manuel II, 1889–1932, king of Portugal (1908–10), second son of Charles I. He succeeded to the throne after the assassination of his father and elder brother, but in Oct., 1910, a revolution dethroned Manuel and established a republic. The royal family escaped, and Manuel spent most of his remaining years in England enjoying his large fortune.

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Manuel I

Manuel I

Manuel I Comnenus (ca. 1123-1180) was Byzantine emperor from 1143 to 1180. Although he was a talented ruler, his diplomatic and military over-extensions left his realm dangerously isolated and humiliated.

The fourth son of John II Comnenus (1118-1143), Manuel was the second one surviving at the time of his father's death in a "hunting accident" that was probably an assassination. Supposedly by the dying John's wish, Manuel was given the throne in preference to his older brother. Manuel assembled a dazzling and lavish court and presided over one of the most brilliant phases of Byzantine culture. He was also an able soldier, strategist, and commander. Nevertheless, his perception seems to have been at times superficial, and his policies, although imaginative, were often misguided.

Manuel's basic policies were to recover the lands in Asia Minor lost to the Turks, to assert control over the crusader states of the Holy Land, to maintain domination of the sub-Danubian Balkans, to recover Byzantine rights and lands in Italy, and to restore the empire's international position.

At the outset of his reign, Manuel built his diplomatic hopes on cooperation with the new Hohenstaufen dynasty of Germany, planning thereby to check the aggressive Norman king of Sicily and southern Italy, Roger II. The alliance was sealed by Manuel's marriage to Bertha of Sulzbach, sister-in-law of the German emperor Conrad III. But this entente was badly disrupted by Conrad's participation in the abortive Second Crusade (1147-1149). Freed from German pressure, Roger sent his fleets to devastate Byzantine Greece ruthlessly. Conrad renewed his alliance with Manuel, but he died soon after his return. He left the German throne to his nephew Frederick I Barbarossa, who soon ended any illusions of continued Comnenian-Hohenstaufen cooperation.

Manuel's other initial ally, and his supporter in his continuing wars with Roger, was Venice. But ill feelings developed between Manuel and Venice, so the Emperor endeavored to play off Venice and the other major Italian maritime powers, Genoa and Pisa, against each other. He also cultivated the papacy, especially under Frederick's enemy, Alexander III, in the vain hope of ending the schism of the Churches and of being recognized as emperor of both East and West. Further, he supported the north Italian cities in their struggles against Frederick. Manuel's Italian interests were not merely diplomatic, however, for he sought to restore in the peninsula the power of the Byzantines, expelled since the Norman conquest of the south a century earlier. He therefore occupied Ancona in 1151 and endeavored to annex the entire eastern coast; but reverses followed, and by 1158 these footholds were finally lost. Meanwhile, Manuel's relations with Venice deteriorated so badly that in 1171 the Emperor ordered all Venetians within the empire arrested and their properties confiscated. This led to new hostilities.

In other spheres, Manuel achieved clearer success. In the Balkans, during the 1150s and 1160s, Manuel effectively resisted the ambitions of Hungary and established the most comprehensive control of the sub-Danubian regions that the empire had enjoyed since the 6th century. Likewise successful was his domination of the Armenians of Cilicia and, especially, the Latins of the crusader states. The climax of this effort was his triumphant reception in Antioch in 1159, where both that city's prince and the king of Jerusalem acknowledged his suzerainty.

Yet, it was in the East that Manuel's ultimate humiliation came. His strategic blunders as commander delivered his army to a dreadful massacre by the Turks in 1176, at Myriokephalon, from which Manuel himself fled for his life. This disaster sealed forever the Byzantine loss of central Asia Minor. This humiliation also capped the destruction of his international image; he was reduced to insignificance beside the prestigious Frederick Barbarossa.

Likewise in his domestic regime, Manuel was imaginative but not consistently successful. His ecclesiastical policies were firm and constructive, aimed at curbing excessive monastic wealth. The empire's economy also flourished to a considerable extent, but its effects were qualified by Manuel's lavish expenditures and heavy taxation. He found it impossible to check the progress of quasi-feudal power and independence among the powerful landed aristocrats, and his efforts at cultivating or encouraging other orders of society were ill-timed. He made free and open-minded use of Westerners and other peoples, but his cosmopolitanism was out of tune with the increasingly narrow Hellenism of his people, and it antagonized them. The Emperor died on Sept. 24, 1180.

Further Reading

The basic study of the Comneni is in French. Lively sketches of Manuel's two Latin wives are in Joseph McCabe, The Empresses of Constantinople (1913), and Charles Diehl, Byzantine Empresses (1963). A general account of the reign is in The Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 4 (1923; 2d ed., 2 pts., 1966), and George Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State (1956; rev. ed. 1969). Andrew B. Urbansky, Byzantium and the Danube Frontier (1968), is a study of the relations between Byzantium, Hungary, and the Balkan states during the period of the Comneni.

Additional Sources

Cinnamus, Joannes, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, New York: Columbia University Press, 1976.

Magdalino, Paul, The empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180, Cambridge England; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. □

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Manuel I (1469–1521)

Manuel I (1469–1521)

Manuel I (b. 31 May 1469; d. 13 December 1521), king of Portugal (1495–1521). Born in Alcochete, Manuel was the youngest child of Prince Fernando, second duke of Viseu and first duke of Beja, master of the Orders of Christ and Santiago, and Dona Beatriz, daughter of Prince João. Both parents of Manuel were grandchildren of King João I (reigned 1385–1433), and Prince Fernando was the younger brother of King Afonso V (reigned 1438–1481). One of Manuel's sisters, Leonor, was married to King João II (reigned 1481–1495). Another sister, Isabel, was married to Dom Fernando, third duke of Bragança, who was executed for treason in 1483. An older brother of Manuel was Dom Diogo, fourth duke of Viseu and third of Beja, master of the Order of Christ, who was stabbed to death in 1484 by King João II for conspiring against the monarch. Manuel, who was only fifteen years old at the time of Diogo's death, had earlier been adopted by King João II, his cousin and brother-in-law, and was allowed to succeed his deceased brother as duke of Viseu and Beja and master of the Order of Christ. In July 1491, João II's only legitimate child, Crown Prince Afonso, who had married Princess Isabel, daughter of the Catholic monarchs Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, was fatally injured in a horseback-riding accident. Although João II had an illegitimate son, Dom Jorge, who by 1492 had become master of the Orders of Santiago and Avis, the monarch was pressured to name Manuel as heir to the throne and did so in his last will and testament.

When João II died in 1495, Manuel was acclaimed king of Portugal on 25 October. In 1496, King Manuel recalled the Braganças to Portugal from exile in Castile and restored that family's properties and titles, which earlier had been confiscated by the crown. In 1498, Manuel named his nephew, Dom Jaime, fourth duke of Bragança, heir presumptive to the Portuguese throne. The previous year, in hopes of unifying the Iberian Peninsula under Portuguese rule, Manuel married Isabel, the widow of Prince Afonso. Isabel, who had become crown princess of Aragon and Castile because of the death of her brother Juan, died in childbirth in 1498. Manuel and Isabel's son, Miguel, heir to the thrones of Portugal, Castile, and Aragon, died in 1500. King Manuel then married Isabel's younger sister, Maria. Among their many children were future King João III (reigned 1521–1557); Princess Isabel (who married Emperor Charles V in 1526); Cardinal-King Henrique (reigned 1578–1580), who was also Grand Inquisitor of Portugal; Prince Luis (father of the illegitimate Dom Antônio, prior of Crato, pretender to the Portuguese throne in 1580); and Prince Duarte (father of Dona Catarina, sixth duchess of Bragança and grandmother of King João IV, the first of Portugal's Bragança monarchs). In 1518, following Queen Maria's death the previous year, King Manuel married Leonor, oldest sister of Charles V and Catherine of Austria (future wife of Manuel's son, King João III).

The most controversial action of Manuel's reign was the forced conversion to Christianity of all Jews living in Portugal. At the prodding of Princess Isabel and her parents, Manuel issued an edict in December 1496, giving all Jews in Portugal from January to October of 1497 to convert to Christianity or to leave Portugal. Contrary to what is frequently written, relatively few Jews were expelled or allowed to depart from Portugal since Manuel did all in his power to prevent them from leaving the country. With few exceptions, Jews in Portugal either voluntarily accepted Christianity or were forcibly baptized. Among the crown's incentives to conversion was the taking of all children under fourteen years of age from Jewish parents who would not convert and giving them to Christians throughout Portugal to raise. By the end of 1497, the process of forced conversion was completed. In 1498, Manuel issued an edict allowing twenty years' grace regarding the sincerity of the conversions. An additional sixteen years was later granted. The result of this forced conversion was a new group in Portuguese society called "New Christians," who later were hounded by the Inquisition and subjected to "purity of blood" statutes until 1773, when King José I (reigned 1750–1777), at the urging of the marques de Pombal, abolished these distinctions.

During his reign, Manuel I presided over numerous financial, legislative, and administrative reforms, including an updated codification of Portuguese law. The monarch replaced the Ordenaçoes Afonsinos of his uncle with the Ordenaçoes Manuelinas, which began to be printed in 1512. A new corrected edition was published in 1521, the year of Manuel's death. Manuel's reign is probably most famous for the great overseas discoveries he sponsored. On 8 July 1497, he sent Vasco da Gama and four ships to find a sea route to India. This aim was achieved with da Gama's arrival in Calicut on 20 May 1498. By the end of August of 1499, two of da Gama's ships had arrived back in Portugal. On 9 March 1500, a follow-up expedition of thirteen ships, headed by Pedro Álvares Cabral, left Lisbon. On 22 April, Monte Pascoal in Brazil was sighted, and on 2 May, Cabral continued to India, but not before sending his supply ship back to Portugal with news of his discovery. In 1501, Manuel sent three ships under the command of Gonçalo Coelho to explore the eastern coast of Brazil. Upon Coelho's return the following year, Manuel leased out Brazil for three years to a consortium headed by Fernão de Loronha. However, Manuel was more interested in North Africa, East Africa, and Asia than in America, and concentrated his energies on those regions.

See alsoGama, Vasco da; Portuguese in Latin America.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Damião De Góis, Crónica do Felicissimo Rei D. Manuel, first published in 1566–1567. The best modern edition was published in four volumes, 1949–1955.

Elaine Sanceau, The Reign of the Fortunate King, 1495–1521 (1969).

Additional Bibliography

Bedini, Silvio A. The Pope's Elephant. Nashville, TN: J. S. Sanders & Co., 1998.

Costa, João Paulo Oliveira. D. Manuel I, 1469–1521: Um príncipe do renascimento. Rio de Mouro: Círculo de Leitores, 2005.

                                      Francis A. Dutra

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