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Alfonso XII (king of Spain)

Alfonso XII, 1857–85, king of Spain (1874–85), son of Isabella II. He went into exile with his parents at the time of the revolt of the Carlists in 1868 and was educated in Austria and England. In 1870 his mother abdicated her rights in his favor, and in 1874 he was proclaimed king. Supported by Martínez de Campos and Cánovas del Castillo, he consolidated the monarchy, winning greater popularity for it than it had enjoyed under his mother or grandfather, Fernando VII. He was a victim of the cholera epidemic of 1885. His widow, Maria Christina (1858–1929), was regent during the minority of his posthumous son, Alfonso XIII.

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Alfonso XIII

Alfonso XIII (1886–1941) King of Spain (1886–1931). He was born after the death of his father, Alfonso XII, and his mother Maria Christina (1858–1929) acted as regent until 1902. Alfonso's reign was marked by civil unrest and he survived several assassination attempts. He used military and authoritarian measures to suppress republicans and Catalan and Basque nationalists. In 1923 Alfonso supported the establishment of a military dictatorship under General Miguel Primo de Rivera. In 1930 the collapse of the dictatorship left Alfonso personally discredited and he was forced into exile (1931).

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